DSpace Repository

ქართული ეთნოლოგიის წარსული, აწმყო და მომავალი

Show simple item record

dc.contributor.author თოფჩიშვილი, როლანდ
dc.date.accessioned 2022-06-24T12:20:09Z
dc.date.available 2022-06-24T12:20:09Z
dc.date.issued 2011
dc.identifier.citation ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის საქართველოს ისტორიის ინსტიტუტის შრომები, IV, თბილისი, 2011, გვ. 376-399 / Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Institute of Georgian History Proceedings, IV, Tbilisi, 2011, pp. 376-399 en_US
dc.identifier.issn 1987–9970
dc.identifier.uri http://dspace.tsu.ge/xmlui/handle/123456789/1709
dc.description https://geohistory.humanities.tsu.ge/ge/procedings/83-shromebi/136-shromebi-4.html en_US
dc.description.abstract It is generally known that ethnology belongs to one of the important spheres of the humanities. It was established as a scientific discipline in the 70s of the 18th century. Unlike other sciences, ethnology has experienced certain destiny (or disaster) which concerns both its object and name. What does the ethnology study? we often offer students a simple and ready explanation by S. Lourie: “Ethnology studies all the problems related to the life of ethnos”. Anthropology is considered to be the science about changeability of human being in time and space. While the physical anthropology studies the issues of changes of human being’s organism, cultural anthropology focuses on the variation of culture. Ethnography/ethnology as a scientific branch and direction was founded in Germany and German-speaking countries but anthropology – in Englishspeaking counties as social anthropology in England and as cultural anthropology in the USA. American school did not take the full name of the English because the former directed the research in a different way. What is a leading aspect for ethnology/ethnography on the one hand, and for social/cultural anthropology on the other hand? German school is characterized by the historical direction, Anglo-Saxons – sociological. This is the main distinctive point between anthology/ethnography and anthropology. In one word, the point of departure for ethnology is ethnos (people) and ethnicity and ethnical culture and society (socium), but for anthropology – socium (society), for cultural anthropology – study of cultural features of all kinds of people (ethnos) and without ethnicity. Anthropology, actually, overlooks thnos, ethnogenesis and ethnical history, i.e. ethnology and anthropology do not comply with each other from this point of view as well. In the least, one of the most cardinal problems of modern ethnology is to study ethnos, ethnical relationships. We mean existed strained relations, conflicts between ethnoses. The difference also is that in the West, especially in anthropology and language practice, the term “ethnicity” (e.g. ethnical dances, ethnical cuisine...), as a rule, refers not to the basic population but to so called ethnical minority, exotic groups. The scientific explanation of it (S. Arutinov) is that Americans or American identity was formed not long ago; while in the ancient world both major and minor nations had the long history of existence. For us, all peoples of the world are a special unity (cultural unity) whether they are big or small, regardless the length of their history, despite the stage of their development: primitive, agrarian or industrial, whether they have written language or not. Thus, the above discussion laid special emphasis on the heterogeneousness of ethnography/ethnology and anthropology. To support this opinion, we should refer to some famous scientists as well. Radcliffe-Brown wrote: “Ethnology studies culture according to the method of historical reconstruction, whereas social anthropology researches and studies common laws which are beyond the cultural events”. Radcliffe-Brown points out that the aim of sociological anthropology is the study of primitive society. Malinowski also shared the same opinion; he considered sociological anthropology, which investigates primitive societies, as a branch of sociology. Ernest Gellner shared similar views, too. Confronting anthropology with sociology, he wrote that anthropology studies primitive societies, while sociology researches developed ones. Anthropology is an empiric science and sociology is a theoretical discipline. Thereby, anthropology, especially social anthropology, gives the preference to “primitive” societies and small groups of contemporary societies. In fact, the “primitive” societies are obviously preferential. The Generally acknowledged representative of 20th century British anthropology E. Evans- Pritchard emphasized that social anthropology is the humanitarian discipline oriented to understanding the meaning of other cultures. Under these other cultures, he certainly meant the societal culture of non-European (primitive) people. However, since 1950 E. Evans-Pritchard had advocated the synthesis of the social anthropology and history. Because of this, some scientists were pointing to his shifting on the theoretical positions of hermeneutics. No one reproached ethnology about intrusion in the scopes of study of other scientific disciplines, while anthropology had been getting such kind of reproaches all the time. One of the USA leading sociologists, T. Parsons wrote: “It is difficult to characterize the special position taken by anthropology, as to some degree … it has assigned the sphere even wider than the sphere of sociology itself, whereas on the other hand, it had concentrated its attention on the cultures in illiterate societies” Thus, despite the fact that ethnology and anthropology have too much in common, they are two different sciences with different understandings about their objects of study. Initially, the ethnology/ethnography also studied the primitive people. But later on, it began to study the European and other people’s peasant and traditional cultures. And traditional culture greatly differs from primitive, savage culture for sure. It also worth noting that in the Scandinavian countries, particularly, in Sweden, anthropology was called the science studying cultures of undeveloped societies, and ethnology – the science studying the European peasant cultures. According to Hans Fisher, studying the Europeans through sociological methods (as anthropology does it), is absurd. It is true, that the Georgians do not belong to Europe geographically, but according to the civilized development, we consider ourselves as a part of Europe. At least, the Georgian ethnic culture is not at the lowest primitive stage, and this can be confirmed by any non-Georgian scientist. The long history of Georgian statehood, the intellectual culture based on the Christianity, and the original Georgian written language could serve as enough evidence to prove above mentioned. In the XIX-XX centuries, Georgia was part of the Russian Empire. The scientific model of Russia was similar to the German model. The development of ethnological sciences also took place according to that model. Naturally, the Georgian ethnology became the part of that model. Georgian ethnology was formed as a science of historical approach studying the Georgian people and its ethnic (traditional) culture. It was, and still is, in the service of maintaining the Georgian consciousness. The certain part of Georgian ethnologists believe that ethnology, as a scientific discipline, became obsolete, and is more limited in comparison with anthropology, i.e. they are inclined to rename ethnology into anthropology. What will the science benefit from changing the name? As we talked above, ethnology and anthropology have different aspects and trends of study. Apparently, the supporters of renaming (and in reality, supporters of changing the direction) see the way out only by changing the name. In our opinion, substituting the title and direction will only be harmful and is not correct. en_US
dc.language.iso ge en_US
dc.publisher მერიდიანი en_US
dc.subject ეთნოლოგია en_US
dc.subject ეთნოგრაფია en_US
dc.subject ანთროპოლოგია en_US
dc.title ქართული ეთნოლოგიის წარსული, აწმყო და მომავალი en_US
dc.type Article en_US

Files in this item

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record

Search DSpace

Advanced Search


My Account