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    უცნობი კავკასია. XIX საუკუნის უცხოური წყაროების მიხედვით
    (თსუ-ს გამომცემლობა., 2019) კანდელაკი, დალი
    Researching the history of relations between Russia and Caucasian countries has been relevant topic since the previous centuries until present. Caucasus is still the conflict zone and the most developed countries are still observing the current ongoing processes in the region and are interested with its history. Why was Caucasus still unkown for the outside world in XIX century? How did the Russia’s Caucasian policy continue, which was intentionally started centuries ago? What were the steps taken by the Russian Empire for securing its position in neighbor countries? How were the relationships between the conqueror and the conquered evolving? How did contemporaries characterize Caucasian people? These are questions we tried to answer in the presented work, based on the Russian and German written sources of that period. The number of Europeans in the Caucasus of XIX century was quite increased. The mission and scope of activities were different – travel, serving Russian Empire or other states, conducducting research and etc. Many foreigners took part in expeditions in the Caucasus organized by the Russian Academy of Sciences. In addition to scientists, people of various professions took part in the expeditions: artists, translators, guides, etc. In works created by them, which are distinguished by a great variety - correspondence in newspapers, articles published in scientific and literary journals, monographs and sketches - European states are clearly interested in the geopolitical position of the Caucasus, the lifestyle of local peoples, natural diversity and etc. In the works of the European militaries, travelers or scientists, interesting information is kept about the royal governors and commanders-in-chief of the Caucasus who carried out the political course of the Russian Empire in this region in the 19th century. The authors of the works describe the history of battles, episodes from the lives of Russian officers and soldiers, their interrelations both among themselves and with the local population, events and facts that took place in Russian military settlements, etc. From these materials, both Europeans and Russians got acquainted with the political, economic and social situation of the Caucasian countries, with the interests of Russia in the Caucasus, with the sacrificing struggle of Caucasians against invaders, etc. These works provide an opportunity to better understand the essence of Russia's aggressive policy and realize the basis of the problems in relations between the Caucasian countries themselves. The authors left very important materials from which certain parts are still unknown for Georgian historiography. Topic of Caucasus occupies very important place in the Russian sources of this period. The genres and topics of the works analyzed vary, namely – stories, diaries, essays, historic and ethnological essays, etc. From the point of view of researching the region, they are very interesting source materials. The facts, described in written sources had a big influence on Russian society of that time and somehow was an answer to their questions – what is Caucasus, why does Russia has a war in this region and how is it dealing relations with locals of Caucasus. The memoirs are based on previously created notes, private archives or other people’s narrations. The authors also used military documents. That is why, the subjectivity in attitudes towards the events previously occurred and disrupted facts in these works are traced. Relying on foreign and Russian sources, Russian scientists tried to study the history of Caucasian people. The Russian Academy of Sciences was sending scientific expeditions, which were publishing works and presenting reports. The Russian Geographical Society and its Caucasian Branch also collected ethnographic materials. Because of these efforts and based on these materials, the image of Caucasian people was penetrated in the Russian consciousness. Presented work contains discussion about the materials from journal “Vestnik Evropy”, more precisely, letters by Russian militaries who took part in wars of Caucasus - M. Voronchenkov and E.V.Basin, besides, essay translated from German and the article by N. Pelt. Work also analyzes published article in journal “Kavkazsky Sbornik” by Russian military, E. Lachinov and article in”Russkaia Starina” by I. Dubetsky. Book also reviews the works of two Germans, who visited Caucasus with different missions: Theodor Horshelt – German painter, who was fighting against north Caucasian people as a Russian soldier in the end of fifties of the XIX century and Ernst Heckel – scientist and zoologist of a world importance who was travelling in the end of nineties of the XIX century. Their works – diaries and paintings – create very vivid impressions of XIX century Caucasus for the society who is interested in the history of the region.