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სვანური -გარ და ქართული -ღა ნაწილაკების სემანტიკურ-ფუნქციური ურთიერთმიმართებისათვის
(ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2024-01-08) მარგიანი, ქეთევან / Margiani, Ketevan
Like Georgian, the Svan particles are either suffixes or separate elements found with the noun and verb. Due to their archaic nature, changed semantics or expansion of meaning (in one language or the other), the Svan particles only partially correlate with their phonetic equivalent in Georgian. Among such particles is -გარ -gar. According to special literature, both materially and functionally, this particle is considered as equal to the Georgian particle -ღა -γa. Like Georgian, this Svan particle follows the word it is related to. However, according to the spelling rules, it is written separately. At a glance, the area of function of this Svan particle is broader as compared to the Georgian particle, because, when we translate the Svan forms with this particle, taking into account the context, the Georgian analogues of this Svan particle include not only the particle -ღა -γa, but also the lexemes მხოლოდ mxolod “solely” and მარტო mart’o “only”. In my opinion, the situation with regard to the Svan particle is archaic: in Georgian, at a certain stage of language development, the archaic -ღა /-γa / was mostly replaced by the lexemes მხოლოდ mxolod “solely” and მარტო marto “only”. However, the Svan language does not have any lexemes correlated to მხოლოდ mkholod “solely” and mart’o “only”. Instead, the particle -გარ -gar (-ღა -γa) is used in all contexts. When speaking in Georgian, the Svan speaker will rarely use the forms with the particle -ღა -γa or the lexeme მხოლოდ mxolod “solely” (even in Georgian, such forms belong to the literary language rather than oral speech). Therefore, the Svan speaker of Georgian will chiefly use the lexeme მარტო mart’o “only”. The place of the latter lexeme in a sentence is defined on the basis of the Svan language, i.e. in the Georgian speech of the Svan speaker, the lexeme მარტო mart’o “only” follows the word which is followed by -გარ -gar in Svan. Thus, we get the calque of the Svan and, correspondingly, a stylistically wrong Georgian sentence. In some cases, this fact affects the content. For instance: instead of the correct sentence გიორგი გუშინ უდა მოსულიყო giorgi gušin unda mosulix’o, magram dγesγa moaγc’ia / mxolod dγes moaγc’ia “Giorgi was to come yesterday, but he came here only today”, the Svan speaker of Georgian says: დღეს მარტო მოაღწია dγes mart’o moaγc’ia “He came today only”; Instead of saying ესღა დამრჩა esγa damrča “only this remains”, the Svan speaker of Georgian will say ეს მარტო დამრჩა es mart’o damrča “this only remains”; instead of მარტო (/მხოლოდ) ეს წავიკითხე mart’o (/mxolod) es c’avik’itxe “I only read this”, the Svan speaker says ეს მარტო წავიკითხე es mart’o c’avik’itxe “this only I read”... As it turned out, the reason for the calquing is the stable place of the Svan particle in the construction rather than lexical noncorrespondence. Thus, the above-mentioned non-correspondence between the literary language and oral speech and the lexical units of the nonwritten language (with regard to both the function and the place in a sentence) and the so-called “free spaces” (“gaps”) can lead to stylistic discrepancy and calquing not only in languages of different structures but also in the related languages.
ნაცვალსახელთა ჯგუფებისათვის თანამედროვე ქართულში
(ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2024-01-08) დათუკიშვილი, ქეთევან / Datukishvili, Ketevan
In Georgian, there are 10 groups of pronouns. The units comprising each group have been defined by numerous Georgian scholars. In my opinion, this classification requires further clarification regarding certain cases. The paper focuses on personal and demonstrative pronouns. ეს es, ეგ eg, ის is, იგი igi are viewed in the Georgian linguistic literature on the one hand as III person pronouns, and, on the other hand, as demonstrative ones. In my opinion, such classification creates certain problems. Therefore, we should work out a different approach. A. Arabuli does not consider the pronoun იგი igi as a demonstrative pronoun (Arabuli, p. 242). I agree with this opinion. As for the pronouns ეს es – ეგ eg – ის is, according to A. Arabuli and Z. Peikrishvili, they serve as personal pronouns in collocation with verbs and as demonstrative pronouns in collocation with nouns. I share the opinion that in collocation with the noun ეს es – ეგ eg – ის is act as demonstrative pronouns. However, in my opinion, even in collocation with the verb, the pronouns ეს es and ეგ eg preserve their demonstrative meaning, because their semantics always implies deixis (denoting closeness to the first or second person). Due to this fact, I argue that these pronouns should always be classified as demonstrative pronouns. As for the pronoun ის is, which is used in collocation with the verb, in the absolute majority of cases, it acts as a personal pronoun. However, in some contexts, it can perform the function of a demonstrative pronoun; for instance: ან ეს მოვიდეს, ან ის an es movides an is “either this one or that one should come”. Thus, the pronoun ის is should be included in two different groups, namely, it should be considered as a demonstrative pronoun in the opposition: ეს es – ეგ eg – ის is “this –that”; and as a personal pronoun in the opposition: მე me – შენ shen – ის is “I, you, he/she/it”.
ეპოქა, იდეოლოგია და ლექსიკონები
(ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2024-01-08) ზექალაშვილი, რუსუდან / Zekalashvili, Rusudan; ქურდაძე, რამაზ / Kurdadze, Ramaz
It is common knowledge that the change of vocabulary, maybe influenced by a number of factors among them we should first of all mention the influence of the prevailing ideology of the particular country. If the state is totalitarian, all the spheres of life are under its control, which is reflected in the vocabulary of the language. Dictionaries and other works compiled and published in some totalitarian states of the last century are a visible example of this. Linguistics of the 20th century got interested in studying the impact of fascist ideology on human speech. This is well described by Victor Klemperer in the book “LTI - The Language of the Third Reich. A Philologist’s Notebook”. And after the 90s of the same century, it became relevant to observe the lexical-grammatical features of the speech of the inhabitants of the two Germanys; Special attention was paid to the differences in the linguistic features (including lexical ones) in the discourse of the same population living in the GDR and the FRG. It became obvious how great was the influence of the Soviet ideology on the discourse of the inhabitants of socialist GDR. Ideology and regime influence not only speech but also public consciousness. The novel "The Unbearable Lightness of Being" by the famous Czech writer Milan Kundera serves as proof of this. One of the chapters of the book is called “Dictionary of Unintelligible Words”, where we can see that the two main characters, Sabina and Franz, sometimes cannot understand each other. The reason is that Sabina grew up in socialist Czechoslovakia and France in Switzerland. For example, the word “demonstration” for Sabina is associated with tedious advance marches and fake celebrations, while for Franz it is a form of protest of a free man. German prof. Rudi Keller, an interesting researcher in this field called the influence of ideology on the speech of humans the phenomenon of the “invisible hand”. A similar situation was characteristic of the countries of the socialist camp, the republics of the Soviet Union, Georgia among them. From the point of view of the impact of political ideology on the lexical side of speech, the eight volume Explanatory Dictionary of the Georgian Language, (1950-1965, Chief Editor prof. Arn. Chikobava) presents a great interest. Despite the ideological pressure and the most difficult conditions during the hard post-war years, compiling such a dictionary was equal to scientific heroism. Its lexical base at that time was comprehensive and reflected the lexical stock of the Georgian language as much as possible. Obviously, the Soviet ideology found its reflection in the given dictionary, and it was certainly inevitable. From this point of view, several aspects can be distinguished: • Diverse definitions according to the views of socialist and capitalist countries; • A large number of words of ideological content when selecting lexical units; • Ideological coloring of definitions of words of political-economic, social, philosophical and other topics; • Propaganda of atheism and trending definition of religious words; • The abundance of borrowed words from the Russian language: neologisms and abbreviations characteristic of the Soviet epoch; • Collocations and illustrative sources (Marxist-Leninist political literature, press of that time, history of the communist party of the Soviet Union, communist party congress resolutions...). In the definitions of the lexical units, you can see the tendency of demonstrating the superiority of the socialist world and the communist ideology, the high moral portrait of a “free” Soviet person and the moralpolitical vices of the capitalist countries are emphasized. It is worth mentioning that the first edition of the Explanatory Dictionary of the Georgian Language is not only a rich source of cultural information, but also the ideological one and reflects the contradictory Soviet years. This again emphasizes that the dictionary is a kind of the reflection of the relevant time.
ჯდომის“ აღმნიშვნელი ზმნები ქართულში (ძირითადი მნიშვნელობა და გაფართოების არეალი)
(ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2024-01-08) ლოლაძე, ნანა / Loladze, Nana
The verbs denoting “sitting”, like verbs denoting “standing” and “lying”, belong to the archaic layer of language and are characterized by numerous peculiarities. These verbs are termed as verbs of “position“, since they denote three different positions of the object (in a broad sense) in space: vertical – standing, horizontal – lying and intermediate – sitting. Most studies agree on the anthropocentric basis of the posture verbs: their prototypical meaning pertains to the three typical positions of a human being (Lemmens, 2002, 2). It should be noted that typologically these verbs are characterized by semantic extension. The results of such extension are, on the one hand, metaphorization, and, on the other hand, grammaticalization. Recently, investigation of these verbs within the scope of cognitive linguistics has become especially active. Newman has distinguished four cognitive domains relevant for the interpretation of the basic meanings of these three positional verbs. These domains are: the spatio-temporal domain, force dynamics domain, active zone and social/cultural domain. Based on this scheme, the chief meaning of the verb of “sitting” is defined as follows: Spatio-temporal domain – relativaly compact position; Force dynamics domain –medium degree of control and balance; Active zone – buttocks (and upper torso); Social/cultural domain – comfortable position either for working or relaxing (Newman, 2012, 2). This is the basic meaning of “sitting”. As for the lexicalization of this meaning, it can be expressed by different lexical means in different languages. It should be noted that such lexical diversity is especially peculiar of the verbs of sitting. In Georgian, the verbs of sitting reveal interesting meanings. Under these verbs, we mean the verb ზის (is sitting), as well as auto-causative verb ჯდება (sits down) and causative verb სვამს (seats, offers to sit down). Above all, we should mention that in all Kartvelian languages, the verbs of standing and lying are based on common roots1. However, there are different roots for the verbs of sitting: Georgian – ზის zis Megrelian – (გე)ხე(ნ) (ge)khe(n) Laz – გეხენ gekhen Svan – სგურ sgur In Georgian, there are two verbs expressing sitting. One is ზის zis, referring to one person, and სხედ skhed, referring to the plural. Besides, unlike the verbs დგას dgas “stands” and ძევს dzevs “lies”, the verbs of sitting were not used in old Georgian in the meaning of possession. In modern Georgian, the verb ზის zis “sits” has the following meanings: 1. The state of a person leaning upon some solid object with the lower part of the body (buttocks); staying in some place, for instance, in prison; occupying a certain post (the King, the Patriarch, the Catholicos...). 2. The state of an animal leaning on its hind legs, or the state of a bird, insect, reptile, rodent or amphibian which is motionless, leaning upon something with its legs. 3. In case of an inanimate subject, placed in something; established. When the verb ზის zis “sits” refers to a person, in the majority of cases, it denotes not the so-called “compact” position, but restricted movement or restricted area of action. When referring to other animate subjects, this verb denotes stillness and restricted movement in space. As for old Georgian, Ilia Abuladze considers “establishment” as one of the basic meanings of this verb (Abuladze, 1973, p. 573). There are cases when the verb of sitting is found together with the verbs of movement: ჯდომაჲ შენი და გამოსლვაჲ და შესლვაჲ შენი უწყი. O მფ. 19,27 Ǯdomaj šeni da gamoslvaj da šeslvaj šeni uçqi. O mp. 19,27. “I am aware of your sitting and coming out and entering”. O Book of the Kings, 19, 27; ნუ განიშორებ მას ნუცა სლვასა და ნუცა ჯდომასა. მ.სწ. 62,13. nu ganišoreb mas nuca slvasa da nuca Ǯdomasa. m. sç. 62,13. “Do not refuse either walking or sitting”. Teachings of the Holy Fathers, 62, 13; რამეთუ ვითარცა კაცნი არ განიყოფვიან ურთიერთას, ხოლო ვითარცა რომელიმე ნუუკუე ზის, ხოლო რომელიმე ვალს, განიყოფვიან. ამონიოს ერმისი, 39 rametu vitarca kacni ar ganiqopebian urtiertas, kholo vitarca romelime zis, kholo romelime vals, ganiqopebian amonios emisi, 39. “People are not divided, but if someone is sitting, and someone is walking, they are separated”. Amonios Ermis, 39. Sitting on the back of a certain animal (e.g. horse) is denoted by the prefixes ზე/ზედა ze/zeda. რომელნი-იგი ზე-სხდეს ჰუნებსა ფს.75,7. romelni-igi ze-skhdes hunebsa ps.75,7 “Those who sit on horseback. Psalm 75, 7”; მეუფჱ შენი მოვალს შენდა მშჳდი და ზე ზის იგი ვირსა და კიცუსა მ. 21,5. meupej šeni movals šenda mšwidi da ze zis igi virsa da kicusa m 2,51 “Your King comes to you, gentle and riding on a donkey and on a colt the foal of a donkey”. Mathew, 21, 51. Thus, in Old Georgian, the verbs of sitting chiefly denoted a state when movement in space is restricted or the area of action is limited. These meanings were developed as a result of extension of the basic meaning.
მეთოდოლოგიური და ტერმინოლოგიური პრობლემები თანამედროვე ქართულ გრამატიკულ ლიტერატურაში და მათი დაძლევის გზები (ფორმისა და შინაარსის ურთიერთმიმართებისათვის)
(ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2024-01-08) მელიქიშვილი, დამანა / Melikishvili, Damana
1. The subject-matter of the research and study of grammar, as one of the branches of linguistics, is the study of the word and its relation with the content. 2. Unlike the mono-personal verb of European languages, the Georgian poly-personal verb is a “sentence in miniature” in itself due to the alternation of subjective and objective person markers and vowel prefixes which make orientation between grammatical persons. 3. The research of Georgian poly-personal verb according to the “model” of the Thracian grammar have gaven rise to many essential methodological and terminological problems, which are still unsolved. Among them is the problem of “Voice category”. 4. Until today, in university grammar courses and school textbooks of the Georgian language, verbs of the R-(th.suf.) -ი -i structure are qualified as “passive”, “passive voice verbs” verbs, when they actually have an active content. 5. In connection with this problem, quite a number of articles have been published: including my articles – “Tradition and Authoritarianism in Georgian Grammatical Literature”, “Dogmatism in Grammatical Literature” and others. 6. The structural analysis of the entire verb material in the eight-volume explanatory dictionary of the Georgian language showed, that verbs of the ა- a-/ ი- i-/ უ- u-/ ე- e- R(th.suf.) -i -ი structure (ვ-ი-მალ-ებ-ი v-i-mal-eb-i “I am hiding”, ვ-ე-მალ-ებ-ი v-emal- eb-i “I am hiding myself from him/her”, ვ-ე-ლაპარაკ-ებ-ი v-elap’arak’- eb-i “I am speaking with him/her”, ვ-ე-ჩხუბ-ებ-ი v-e-čxubeb- i “I am fighting with him/her”, ვ-ე-ჯაჯგურ-ებ-ი v-e-jajgur-eb-i “I am shaking him/her/it”, ვ-ე-მზად-ებ-ი v-e-mzad-eb-i “I am preparing for something”, ვ-ა-ხტ-ებ-ი v-a-xt’-eb-i “I am jumping on something”, ვ-ა-ცხრ-ებ-ი v-a-cxr-eb-i “I am attacking him/her/it” etc. . .) clearly have an active content (their subject is active) and, therefore, their qualification as passive verbs is unfounded. Abbreviations: R – Root; th. suf - thematic suffix