რძის პროდუქტების სახელდებისათვის

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Date
2022
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ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა
Abstract
The naming of products, especially those of light industry – food products, is of great importance. Let's consider some terms related to milk and dairy products. a) ‘Baked’ milk More than one company producing dairy products has recently been producing so-called Baked milk. What kind of product is this baked milk (გამომცხვარი რძე)? You would agree that baking is not commonly related to processing liquid products, and milk in particular. The production of milk and dairy products in the country is regulated by the relevant legal framework, namely the decree ‘On the approval of the technical regulation on milk and dairy products’. გამო-მცხვარი რძე (literally baked milk) is nowhere to be found in this document. The company Sophlis Nobati explains to us the technology: baking takes place in the oven for 6-8 hours, and then the produce is left overnight in a special vessel. Thermal treatment of milk as such does not give us anything by itself. Milk is still milk. გამომცხვარი რძე (gamomtskhvari rdze) is a literal translation of the English term ‘baked milk’. This is a dairy product that was common and produced (and is still produced and common) in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. The English speakers explain that this product is obtained by simmering, not baking. Simmer = boiling on slow fire, cooking. Bake = cooking by dry heat. Simmer is the same process as Russian топление (which in turn comes from томление, meaning long delay, long process). The Russian-Georgian dictionary gives us the following definitions: 2. топить, топлю, топит უსრ. что 1.[და]დნობა (ადნობს), გადადნობა, გამოდნობა; 2.რძის ჟრობა: In the same dictionary, we also find Топленный, топлённая, топлённое დამდნარი, გამდნარი, გადამდნარი, გამოდნობილი, გა-ლხობილი; ნაჟრობი, მჟრალი; т-ое молоко ნაჟრობი, მჟრალი რძე. ჟრობა (zhroba) – is found in Georgian dialects, e.g. In Gurian, and means – slow cooking. As we can see, in Georgian we do have a corresponding match – simmered (მჟრალი or ნაჟრობი) milk. In the above-mentioned government decree, we have the term – რძემჟრალი (rdzemzhrali – simmered milk). This term is used to describe a milk product, namely ‘Varenets’. Varenets is a product obtained from simmered (baked) milk. b) ‘Healthy’ milk In the technical Regulation of milk and milk products, there is no such word complex – healthy milk. Like baked milk, this word arrangement is the result of an unqualified English translation. In English, we have whole milk, which corresponds to the Russian цельное молоко. In addition to whole milk, full-cream milk and not skimmed/unskimmed milk are also used in English. The latter literally means that the milk has not been skimmed. According to the Russian-Georgian dictionary: Цельный, цельная, цельное 1. მთლიანი, ერთიანი; 2. შუმი; მოუხდელი; ц-ое молоко მოუხდელი რძე. In the Regulations, the respective term with appropriate definitions is found several times (I will present here just one example): „unskimmed milk drink – thermally (heat) treated milk, which can be standard, or non-standard.“ Conclusion: instead of საღი რძე (saghi rdze – healthy milk) we should use მოუხდელი რძე (moukhdeli rdze – unskimmed milk), which is correct both linguistically and technologically.
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რძე, საკვები, პროდუქტები, რეგულაციები, სახელდება, Milk, Food, Products, Regulations, Naiming
Citation
არნოლდ ჩიქობავას სახელობის ენათმეცნიერების ინსტიტუტი, ტერმინოლოგიის საკითხები, V, გვ.: 120-125 / Arnold Chikobava Institute of Linguistics, Terminology Issues, V, pp.: 120-125
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