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    რეცენზია ნაშრომზე – ანტიკური ხანის ბერძნულ-ლათინური წარწერები, როგორც საქართველოს ისტორიის წყარო. ავტორები: ნათია ფიფია, ეკატერინე კობახიძე, თედო დუნდუა
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023) მშვილდაძე, მარიკა / Mshvildadze, Marika
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    ქართველი ერის შესახებ ანუ თანატოსის სინდრომი
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023) შველიძე, დიმიტრი / Shvelidze, Dimitri
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    რეცენზია წიგნზე – "ანტიკური ხანის ბერძნულ-ლათინური წარწერები, როგორც საქართველოს ისტორიის წყარო" ავტორები: ნათია ფიფია, ეკატერინე კობახიძე, თედო დუნდუა
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023) ტონია, ნანა / Tonia, Nana
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    უცხოური ფირმების საქმიანობა საქართველოში XX საუკუნის 20-იან წლებში. წყაროს პუბლიკაცია (დოკუმენტები)
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023) კოხრეიძე, არჩილ / Kokhreidze, Archil; მირიანაშვილი, ნათია / Mirianashvili, Natia; შოშიაშვილი, ნოდარ / Shoshiashvili, Nodar
    In the 20s of the 20th century, the Soviet Union began to implement the New Economic Policy, which was approved at the 10th Party Congress on March 14, 1921. The New Economic Policy replaced the previously existing policy of War Communism, which was necessary in the face of the civil war in the country and the foreign intervention and which brought Soviet Russia to economic collapse. Georgia did not pursue the policy of War Communism. The break that took place in Russia as a result of the policy of War Communism, did not occurred in Georgia. The New Economic Policy in Georgia gave a powerful impetus to the development of the economy. The national economy and the economy as a whole began to recover. Market relations were allowed. But this was only a temporary policy, the purpose of which was to create favorable conditions for the development of socialism. The main goal of the New Economic Policy was to eliminate tension in society and strengthen the social base for the Soviet power. It was also necessary to avoid a further collapse of the economy, overcome the crisis and restore the economy. Besides under the New Economic Policy the government began to implement a new foreign policy and tried to overcome the international isolation of the country. The Bolsheviks were forced to allow free trade and to legalize the private production. This policy was only a temporary tactical retreat on the part of the Bolsheviks. They were forced to admit that in this way, to a certain extent, the capitalism was restored in the country. As a result, the trade turnover increased powerfully and a window to Europe was opened. Powerful flows of industrial goods and products began to come to Georgia from abroad. Almost all Soviet republics sent their representatives to Tbilisi and Batumi to purchase goods. Georgia also played a transit role between Europe and the republics of the Soviet Union. Georgia had relationships with many foreign firms. Among them were firms from Sweden that imported matches and agricultural machinery to Georgia. Below we present several documents that illustrate these relations between Georgia and Sweden. One of these Swedish companies was Joint Stock Company “Atlas-Diesel”. Its head office was in Stockholm. It was founded in 1917 (previously there were two separate companies – “Atlas” and “Diesel”, which later merged into one joint-stock company), and its branch operated in Tbilisi.
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    საქართველოს პირველი რესპუბლიკის უკანასკნელი თვეები (პოლიტიკურ-დიპლომატიური რაკურსი)
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023) შველიძე, დიმიტრი / Shvelidze, Dimitri
    In the present work, we particularly focus on the process of negotiations on the trade agreement between Soviet Russia and Great Britain in 1920-1921. The negotiations have been going on for almost over a year and went through several stages. It turns out that in the course of the negotiations the question of the future state of Georgia was also discussed. Initially, and for a long time Great Britain considered Georgia within its sphere of protection and influence. The Soviet Russia opposed such a status. The negotiations dragged on due to the disagreement on the issue of Georgia. At the final stage of the negotiations, Great Britain was forced to back down and remove the issue of Georgia from the text of the agreement. This meant that Soviet Russia managed to maintain Georgia as part of the new Soviet empire. This conceptual approach is documented for the first time in our historiography. The paper also covers other topics.
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    გიორგი V ბრწყინვალის ქართული ტიტულატურისათვის
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023) ბახტაძე, მიხეილ / Bakhtadze, Mikheil
    We have very little information about Giorgi the Brilliant, and what we have, they do not record the full Georgian title of the king. In the document of Giorgi V that has reached us, unfortunately, the full title of the king is not written. Only the last phrase of the title is recorded. If we take into account the titles of the kings of the united Georgia, it is clear that the beginning of the titles would be – “By the will of God, the king of the Abkhazians, Kartvelians, Ranians, Kakhetian and Armenians, Sharvansha and Shahansha.” Another point to be considered is that from the end of the 14th century another formulation appears in the title of the Bagrations – the owner of Likht-Imer and Likht-Amer and the unifier of both kingdoms. For the first time such a title is confirmed in the 1393 charter of Giorgi VII. Then similar formula can be found already in the charters of 1413, 1419, 1420 and 1441 of Alexander I. The question arises, when should the formula – owner of Likht-Imer and Likht-Amer appear? Only after the unity of the divided kingdom was restored, and it happened during the reign of Giorgi the Brilliant. Theoretically, the title – “owner of Likht-Imer and Likht-Amer” could be accepted for the first time by: Giorgi V the Brilliant, David IX, Bagrat V or even Giorgi VII. Why was it necessary to introduce this title? The traditional titulature no longer reflected reality (for several centuries there were no more Abkhazian, Kartvelian, Ranian and Kakhetian kingdoms) and to some extent reflected “frozen reality”. They needed a title that reflected the reality of that era and would be understandable to everyone. “Owener Licht-Imer and Licht-Amer” was a formula, which reflected this situation. In our opinion, the full Georgian title of Giorgi the Brilliant could have been – the king of Abkhazians, Kartvelians, Ranians, Kakhetians and Armenians, Sharvansha and Shahansha, the unifier of Likht-Imer and Likht-Amer, the ruler of all the East and West.
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    რუსეთის იმპერიის კოლონიზატორული პოლიტიკა საქართველოში, "ეკონომიკური რუსიფიკაცია"
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023) ჩიქობავა, აკაკი / Chikobava, Akaki
    In parallel of the annexation of the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti and gradual occupation of the rest of Georgian territories, the Russian Imperial government used various methods to cement its rule in Georgia. Victories in the Russo-Persian and Russo-Ottoman wars in the late 1820s gave the opportunity to the imperial court to start complete and all-around subjugation of the South Caucasus. For this, it was necessary to emigrate the proponents of the imperial rule from the metropolis into the South Caucasus, as well as to gain active supporters on the ground. Settlers had to be provided with necessary land and appropriate means of production that allowed them to start their own agricultural production. Contemporary scientific literature touches upon the question of “Russifications” in the plural, rather than Russification as a singularity. The implications of this division and the role of the economic dimension of the process are the major research areas of our article. Our argument is constructed around. Several main topics: What are the causes of the active presence of the Russian Empire in the South Caucasus and its annexation? What is the economic dimension of the annexation and what kind of benefits did them Russian Empire expect from it? What is the main difference between the Russification policy of the first half of the 19th century and the Russian Eastern policy of Malorus and other peripheral areas? What was the economic basis for the establishment of colonies and migration processes in Georgia and the South Caucasus region in general? How is the process of the expansion of the Russian trade and industrial capital, and the search for new sources of raw materials connected to it? Migration processes in the internal territories of Russia: what are their function and what are the differences between the internal and external migration processes?
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    რეცენზია – ნიკოლოზ მურღულიას წიგნზე "ეგრისის სამეფოს გამაგრების სისტემა" (თბილისი, 2023)
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023) ფიფია, ნათია / Phiphia, Natia
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    დასახლების ფორმები და ინდივიდუალური კარ-მიდამოს მოწყობა სამეგრელოში (წალენჯიხის მუნიციპალიტეტის მაგალითზე)
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023) ციმინტია, ქეთევან/ Tsimintia, Ketevan
    The types of settlement and arrangement of country estates have been changing over time in Samegrelo. Tsalenjikha municipality reflects these changes fully. While plentiful elements appeared in the 20th and beginning of the 21st centuries, historical forms of settlement still remained popular. Settlement types vary and depend on the relief of the specific village. Settlements were mostly located in or near forests before the Soviet era, while later changes brought better infrastructure and improved transportation, subsequently resulting in the appearance of settlements near constructed roads. Some people still prefer to live on hills that are not very connected to new roads. However, most of the people now live in settlements close to roads. Settlements near rivers are rare but still exist. Places of settlement have also changed; people have migrated as a result of new building projects like the construction of Enguri Dam. In other cases, people moved and settled in abandoned or desolated places for different reasons. The morphology of the settlement is also varied; some are patronymic, while others are more urban and have a mixed population—people of different origins live there. Modern patronymic settlements are monogenous—people with one family name and, in some instances, even of the same clan—live there together. The arrangement and forms of country estates are also diverse in the municipality, as they are in the rest of Samegrelo; some estates have one floor, while others have two floors. Different additional buildings connected with agricultural and other economic activities are also present. They are as follows: 1) Jargvali: a house built from logs, now used for storage; 2) Bagh: a small building for keeping corn; 3) cow-house; 4) hen-house; 5) Patskha: a wicker house, etc. Some estates also have small buildings used for rituals called "Khvama,” which have pre-Christian shades and are usually practiced individually by families. The historical form of a house is an Oda-house, which still stays popular; however, the majority of them were built more than a century ago–at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. Two-story houses in the 50s and 70s of the 20th century were built with stone and wood; the first floor was built with stone and concrete, while the second was constructed with wood, mostly with material from chestnut trees. Post-Soviet houses are even more diverse; they combine elements of different ages and bear some novelties as well.
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    ისტორიულ პირებსა და მოვლენებთან დაკავშირებული ხალხური ტექსტების თავისებურება
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023) მამისიმედიშვილი, ხვთისო/ Mamisimedishvili, Khvtiso
    The Georgian people have created a thematically rich and genre-diverse folklore regarding historical persons and events. Unlike official historiography, folk texts do not convey a single historical process, since they attribute the events of the past to only a few historical figures or kings, which led to the cyclical nature of these types of literary works. Folklore is an artistic creation, and in it characters sometimes go far beyond their prototypes. Although the legend of Davit Agmashenebeli (Builder) is about the construction of a Christian temple, the text about the suppression of an evil force uses an ancient Zoroastrian archetype as a plot. As we can see, the folklore tradition did not account for the true heroic deeds of Davit Agmashenebeli and created his mythological biography. The folk poem equipped King Tamar with the attributes of a Demiurge and thus reactualized the ancient cosmogonic myth. Tamar’s confrontation with the sea is reminiscent of the myth of the battle between the God and the Sea Monster of ancient peoples. In folk texts, historical heroes undergo a kind of metamorphosis, and they become mythological heroes with connections to supernatural forces. Although the youth of Erekle II is well known from historical sources, his boyhood is represented by folk poetry with mythological archetypes. Like mythological heroes, King Erekle is an orphan, an abandoned child. Somewhere, in the sacred space, a deer feeds him with its own milk, and finally a hunter finds the prince thrown into a straw. Unlike the ordinary heroic epics, in which the action takes place in an indefinite time and space, the events told in historical songs and legends are in contact with reality. In the imagination of the people historical orality patterns are real, because very real persons act in specific geographical settings, and these texts are often sacred because the main characters are ascribed supernatural qualities. The characters of the cycles created in the later period did not manage to turn into mythological heroes, and the historical events could not be fully integrated into the category of mythical actions. Samples of historical oral folk are extremely important for the study of Georgian culture. Folklore clearly shows how the collective consciousness perceives historical persons and events, how people look at the history of their country. Historical songs and tales provide valuable material for the study of archetypes and ancient poetic forms, since, as research has shown, historical persons and events in folk-literature are created according to mythological schemes, traditional models and ancient archetypes.
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    ზოგიერთი დეტალი გეორგიევსკის ტრაქტატთან დაკავშირებით
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023) თაბუაშვილი, აპოლონ
    Much has been written about the treaty of Georgievsk and numerous aspects concerning to this topic have been properly analyzed. Nevertheless, in our opinion, there are still some issues related to the treaty of Georgievsk that need further research. As we know, the final version of the agreement between the Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti was approved by the Russian Emperor in February 1783, and it was presented to Erekle II in the middle of May of the same year. The king of Kartl-Kakheti delayed the process for about a month and a half. The fact was that it was during this period that the information was spread about the liquidation of the Crimean Khanate and its annexation by the Russian Empire. It seems that this fact made the king think a lot and put forward a new suggestion – he demanded to reflect the right of coronation of Georgian monarchs as kings in the agreement. Archival documents prove that in the letter sent at the end of June 1783, Erekle II requested an additional guarantee for safeguarding his kingdom. Pavel Potemkin, the commander-in-chief of the Caucasus Line, had no right to include it in the treaty without the emperor's permission. Hence, this issue was not reflected in the treaty. Due to this fact, Erekle II was clearly dissatisfied and sent his representative Sulkhan Tumanishvili to St. Petersburg immediately after the return of the Georgian delegation to his homeland. This time, Erekle categorically demanded to reflect the issue of coronation in the treaty. Finally, in September 1783, the Russian emperor approved demands of Erekle II. An additional article was written, according to which the Georgian monarchs were allowed to be crowned as king. According to above-mentioned article Erekle II received from the Russian government an even stronger guarantee of the protection of his kingdom based on the legitimate treaty. One of the demands put forward by Erekle II was the issue of Catholicos. As it is known, the independence of the Georgian Church was limited by the treaty of Georgievsk. In response to this, the king focused on the autocephaly of the Georgian Church and asked the Russian side to take this fact into account. In this regard, the activity of the Georgian king brought certain results. The another disputed issue was related to the territorial claims of the Georgian king. Erekle II claimed both the south-western Georgia conquered by the Ottomans and the neighboring khanates. On the other hand, the Russian Empire planned to take the khanates of the region under its protection and hoped for the help of the Georgian king in this matter. Even before the signing of the treaty, the Georgian side put forward a proposal that the territorial claims of Erekle II should be reflected in his titulature, although the Russian representatives did not meet this request at the time. In such conditions, even the Georgian king refrained from helping the Russians in Azerbaijan, for which Pavel Potemkin expressed his concerns towards the actions of the Georgians. Finally, a certain agreement was reached between the parties – the final version of the treaty included titulature of Erekle the way it was requested by the Georgian side. According to the above-mentioned titulature, Russia recognized Erekle's rights to the khanates of Yerevan, Ganja, Sheki and Shirvan, also Kaki (Sultanate of Elisu and Jar-Balakan) neighbouring Kartli-Kakheti Kingdom. At the same time, the king was announced as the heir of Samtskhe-Saatabago. On the other hand, the Georgian king sent his representatives to the khanates of Karabakh and Khoy and promised to act in favor of the interests of the Russian Empire. As for the form of address, according to the Treaty of Georgievsk, the Georgian king was referred to by the lower epithet. According to the Georgians, Erekle II was traditionally named as “Highness”, a more elevated epithet, hence they demanded the official establishment of the same epithet for their king. As a result, the Imperial court of Russia agreed to the above-mentioned request of the Georgians.
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    თავად სუმბათაშვილთა საგვარეულოს ისტორიიდან
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023) ჯავახიშვილი, ნიკო/ Javakhishvili, Niko
    This article reviews the history of the Sumbatashvilis – one of the prominent noble families in Kartli – the Central part of Georgian kingdom. They were high ranked nobles, princes (in Georg. “Tavadi”). In the historical sources of 17th-19th centuries the princes Sumbatashvilis are named as the faithful warriors and administrators, specifically, ober-kamerhers/garderobmeisters (in Georg. “Meitari”), community governors (in Georg. “Mouravi”), chief cashiers (in Georg. “Molaretukhutsesi”), censor of military servismen (in Georg. “Lashkarnivisi”) of Georgian kings from Bagrationi royal dynasty.. For such loyalty to the kings the princes Sumbatashvilis were highly appreciated by the Georgian kings.
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    გიორგი მცირის ეპისტოლე წმ. გიორგი შეყენებულისადმი
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023) სულავა, ნესტან/ Sulava Nestan
    Giorgi Mtsireʼs epistle, which precedes his hagiographic work “The life of St. Giorgi Mtatsmindeli”, has historical and rhetorical value. It helps us to understand the purpose of the writer-hagiographer, the purpose of the epistle, in determining the importance of works about St. Giorgi Mtatsmindeli, in understanding the relationship between Giorgi Mtatsmindeli and Giorgi Mtsire, their education, their place in society, authority, and most importantly, their spiritual image, the purpose of the works and the date of writing, the characteristics of hagiographic genre works, the theological knowledge of the writer, in the perception of worldview and artistic thinking space. Georgian hagiography uses the epistolary style to trace its purposefulness. They weaved their worldview, literary-aesthetic views, which reflected the spirit of the era, social situation and requirements. The observation proves that the archetype of the epistle of Giorgi Mtsire, as well as the epistle of Samoel Catholicos of Kartli and Iovane Sabanisdze, is the epistolary part of the New Testament, the seven Catholic epistles and the fourteen epistles of Paul, but they differ from each other. The difference between the epistolary heritage of the New Testament and, in general, the epistles of hagiography, in particular, the epistle of Giorgi Mtsire, is visible. The main purpose of the epistles of the apostles was to preach the Christian doctrine, while the epistle used for hagiographic works has a different purpose, it informs the reader about the necessity of creating the works, and informs him of the situation due to which it was created. As a result of the observation, it was revealed that the epistle with an individuality of Giorgi Mtsire has the greatest theological and literary significance. In his epistle, the hagiographer brought his main point to the reader, presented the basis of his writings, and explained the purpose of his writings.
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    Arabs, Khazars and the Battle for Transcontinental Trade Routes (7th-13th centuries)
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023) Avdaliani, Emil
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    სამცხე-ჯავახეთის ისტორიულ მუზეუმში დაცული სამი ვერცხლის თასის ატრიბუციისა და დათარიღების საკითხისათვის
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023) სილაგაძე, ნინო/ Silagadze Nino
    Present paper deals with the question of attribution and dating of the three silver bowls – one special sample group of toreutics – preserved in the Samtskhe-Javakheti Historical Museum. In the exposition of the museum artefacts are displayed with the following information: “Silver bowls. Discovered in the ruins of Vani Caves, destroyed during the earthquake in 1283. One of the artefacts is gilded. The Coat of Arms of the Bagrationi Royal Dynasty – “the Coat of Arms of king Solomon” – is depicted on one bowl, which indicates that bowls were a donation from the royal house to the church. XII century”. We argue that the dating of these artefacts is not correct and that they belong to a completely different period, namely – to the Late Antiquity. It is also possible that the cups belong to the special group of objects – so-called Ibero-Sasanian artefacts. If our preliminary hypothesis is correct, a more thorough study of the bowls is needed. In order to be sure in their identification, it is crucial to carefully and thoroughly research all artefacts from the Late Antiquity in Georgia. As we know, the cultural ties of the Georgian states with the outside world in this period became particularly intense. During this period, the influence of the cultures of the Ancient Rome and Sassanian Iran on Georgia has been immense: as a result, the overall cultural picture in Georgia is extremely complex and diverse. Despite the fact that numerous artefacts of the Late Antiquity discovered on the territory of Georgia have been the subject of scientific research for a long time, based on the analysis of the artistic features of glyptic, jewelry or toreutics, it is still possible to clarify certain problems or to evaluate them in a new way. As a rule, their research is carried out in connection with a certain archaeological complex (as it is in the case of the bowls in the Samtskhe- Javakheti Historical Museum). Sometimes this might not lead us to a thorough result. In certain cases, artistic analysis of a sample and studying its stylistic features might give us more detailed information. In our opinion we are dealing with such situation in the case of the three bowls of the Samtskhe-Javakheti Historical Museum.
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    გერმანული კოლონიები საქართველოში: უცხოელი ავტორების სამოგზაურო ჩანაწერები
    (ქართული უნივერსიტეტი, 2023) კანდელაკი, დალი/ Kandelaki, Dali
    სტატიაში განხილულია XIX საუკუნის უცხოური წერილობითი წყაროები რუსეთის იმპერიის მიერ საქართველოში დაარსებული გერმანული კოლონიების შესახებ. თხზულებათა ავტორები არიან მოგზაურები ან რუსეთის მეცნიერებათა აკადემიის მიერ მოწყობილი სამეცნიერო ექსპედიციის წევრები. ავტორები აღწერენ გერმანელი კოლონისტების ყოველდღიურ ცხოვრებას, მთავრობის გატარებულ ზომებს და მათ დამოკიდებულებას რუსეთის იმპერიის ადგილობრივი ხელისუფლებისადმი, არსებულ ენობრივ სიტუაციას, გერმანელების ემიგრაციის მიზეზებს, რელიგიისადმი მათ დამოკიდებულებას, გერმანული კოლონიების გავლენას ადგილობრივ მოსახლეობაზე, მათ მნიშვნელობას ქვეყნის ეკონომიკაში და სხვა. ავტორთა მოსაზრებები განსხვავებულია მათი პოლიტიკური შეხედულებებისა და საქართველოში ყოფნის პერიოდის მიხედვით. უცხოელი ავტორების ცნობები საინტერესო მასალაა საქართველოში გერმანული კოლონიების ისტორიის შესასწავლად./ The article discusses foreign written sources of the 19th century about the German colonies established in Georgia by the Russian Empire. The authors of the essays are travelers or members of a scientific expedition organized by the Russian Academy of Sciences. The authors describe the daily life of the German colonists, the measures taken by the government and their attitude to the local authorities of the Russian Empire, the existing language situation, the reasons for the emigration of Germans, their attitude to religion, the influence of the German colonies on the local population, the importance of the colonies in the economy of the country, and others. The opinions of the authors are different depending on their political views and the period of their stay in Georgia. Reports of foreign authors are interesting material for studying the history of German colonies in Georgia.
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    ბერძნული მემუარული ლიტერატურა და საქართველო 1890-1920 წლებში
    (2023) აბულაშვილი, მედეა; ჭყოიძე, ეკა
    The 20th-century world history faced many times different waves of refugees: from different countries to different directions. During and after the World War 1 Georgia had many difficulties gaining and maintaining her freedom. Despite that she generously offered all necessary services to the refugees from Pontus in 1920-1923 and later. There are various memoirs, diaries or other sources written by eye-witness Greeks who describe their experiences being refugee or helping them in Georgia. Some of them are well-known, some of them lessknown and some of them completely unknown to Georgian audience. Theophylactos Theophylactos (1885-1962) is one of the unknown authors. His memoirs entitled “Γύρω στην άσβεστη φλόγα” (“Around the inextinguishable flame”), a bulky edition with more than 500 pages, was published in Thessaloniki in 1958. After 36 years since he left Georgia, he precisely describes events happened before 1922. Among 7 chapters of the book the second is dedicated exclusively to Georgia (specifically, to Batumi) and bears a title: “Batumi, the place where the Greek-Pontic national activity was moved”. In addition to it, in other chapters Georgia is mentioned many times. In Batumi Theophylactos was actively involved in political activities for Pontus independence (in 1914-1922). Some sessions of the National Council of Pontus took place there. So he inserted in his work all documents ratified by this Council. Besides “documental” character, in the “Around the inextinguishable flame” many emotional passages can be found. According to it, Georgians were very friendly to Greeks and author’s love and gratitude to Georgia is underlined many times. Consequently, this work is an important source for many aspects of political, social and economic life of both Pontus and Georgia but at the same time, it is full of literary means which reveal author’s sensitivity. Theophylactos visited Batumi in 1897 for the first time at his 12. By that period his father worked there and he asked his relatives to send a small boy to him. It is evident that he was very successful with a broad cycle of friends and employees. Exactly that year a war between Greece and Turkey (due to the so called “Cretan question”) broke out. It is especially interesting how author’s childhood memories are imprinted in the work. This information is also important for diaspora studies in Batumi at the end of the 19th century. From historical point of view, the most important part of the “Around the inextinguishable flame” deals with the events of 1914-1920. Both Greek and Georgian studies can be benefited from these passages. A Georgian translation of all important information, as well as of parts where author’s emotions towards Georgia are revealed, is provided in the article. Another author discussed in the paper is Christos Samouilides (Χρίστος Σαμουηλίδης), an author of the novel “Στους Πέντε Ανέμους του Καυκάσου” (“In Five winds of the Caucasus”). In some points it completes the passages provided by Theophylactos. Samouilides’ work is not documental. Although, emotional aspects, the hospitality provided by Georgia to the Pontus’ Greek refugees and other details are in absolute tune with the evidence provided by Theophylactos.
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    ნარინე ვარდანიან, სომხური კანონიკური კრებული ისტორიულ წყაროებსა და ანდერძ-მინაწერებში, მატენადარანი მესროპ მაშტოცის სახელობის ძველ ხელნაწერთა ინსტიტუტი
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023) ხოსიტაშვილი, ირმა (მთარგმნელი)
    The Armenian canonical collection was formed in stages. Being composed in the 5th century, the Armenian Book of Canons was continually edited and gradually expanded in the following centuries, including new canonic groups. It has reached us in numerous editions similar to, or significantly different from, each other in structure and content. This article gives a general outline of yet unstudied evidences by the Armenian authors Hovhan Imastaser Odznets‘i (717-728), Mkhit‘ar Gosh (1120?-1213), and Hakob Amasiats‘i (18th-19th centuries), as well as by scribes in a number of manuscripts: New Julfa (Nor Jugha), 131 (1098), MM 7615 (1352), 659 (1368), 658 (1601), 837 (1627-1630) etc. It discusses their perceptions about the formation, further development, the role and significance of the Armenian canonical collection. In their works, medieval authors and scribes quoted from the Armenian canonical collection, praised it and pointed out the reasons and purposes of its formation and evolution, emphasizing its inseparable connection with other Christian canonical collections.
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    საქართველო-ბიზანტიის საზღვარი XI საუკუნეში: იმიერტაო
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023) ჭეიშვილი, გიორგი
    In 1001 Basil II incorporated a major part of the princedom of David Kouropalates into the empire. The territorial gains comprised David Kouropalates’ hereditary districts of Imier/Upper Tao and Basiani, as well as the Upper Countries, i.e. Karin (Erzurum) and southern lands as far as Lake Van. Imperial possessions were expanded in 1023 following Basil’s campaigns against King Giorgi I of Georgia in 1021-1022. According to the terms of the ensuing treaty King Giorgi handed over the fortresses in Tao, Basiani, Shavsheti, Kola, Artaani and Javakheti. The border between Byzantium and Georgia lay along the Parkhalistskali (Parhal Chayi) – Mourghuli (Murgul Dere), and Oltistskali (Oltu Chayi) – Bardusi (Brdiz Chayi) watersheds. Byzantine suzerainty over the Lower Chorokhi and the Upper Mtkvari lands was nominal, since all central castles, as well as cathedrals and monasteries of the area remained ander the Georgian Crown till the end of the 11th century. The former possessions of David Koroupalates were organized into the theme/katepanate of Iberia with the center in Oltisi. Very little is known about the organization of the katepanate. Some of the features of its early history display parallels with developments elsewhere on the eastern frontier in the early 11th century. The imperial court introduced Byzantine administrative machinery, laws and the Greek language in the katepanate of Iberia, and encouraged movement of Georgian and Armenian nobility to the center of the Empire. In that way the Imperial power made attempts to destroy local national and social peculiarities, include the region into the sphere of common Imperial interests, and ensure security of the eastern frontiers. How did changes in political geography affect the church geography? To what degree did the policy of hellenizaton affect the identity of local population? These two questions are discussed in the present paper, and the focus is done on Imier Tao. By the end of the 10th c. Imier Tao was divided into two church provinces. The western part of the district, namely the middle Chorokhi valley, Parkhali and Tortomi were under the bishop of Ishkhani, while the eastern part, i.e. Oltisi and Mamrovani were under the bishop of Bana. Was the church organization replaced in the katepanate of Iberia? Naris, the bishop of Iberia (?) whose name is mentioned in a Greek inscription found at the socle of the St. George hexaconch church of the Oltisi castle might have been a Greek prelate appointed by the Empire to administrate ecclesiastically the katepanate. It is known that the Patriarchate of Antioch claimed its rights over Byzntium’s Georgian and Armenian lands. Therefore, certain scholars identify the bishoprics of Panakser and Kalmalk mentioned in the Notitia Antiochena as Georgian Panaskerti and Kalmakhi located in Amier/Lower Tao. But this identification has no historical ground since both Panaskerti and Kalmakhi were within the boundaries of the Georgian kingdom. In the 1030-40s, as it is clear from the Parkhali inscription, the province of Imier Tao, or at least its western part, was under the jurisdiction of the Georgian Patriarchate. The presence of the Georgian Church in Imier Tao is quite natural: local monasteries (Parkhali, Oshki, Khakhuli, Otkhta Eklesia) remained essential centers of Georgian culture. The epigraphical data (Oshki), hagiographical texts (the Life of George the Hagiorite), and manuscripts copied in the monasteries of Imier Tao demonstrate vividly that the original policy of Hellenization failed, and Georgian remained dominant both in the monastic and lay life of the district. These features explain the solid positions of the Georgian Church, and the absence of the Greek sees. Geography should also be taken into consideration: deep and rugged gorges of Imier Tao prevented the successful policy of hellenisation and establishment of Greek bishoprics. Of utmost importance are mural fragments in the south apse of the Oshki church (1036). The composition represented on the western wall showed either the coronation of King Bagrat IV of Georgia in 1027, or his marriage in 1032 to Helena, the niece of the Byzantine Emperor Romanos III Argyros. According to certain scholars, the composition depicts the arrival of the holy relics (Holy Nail, fragment of the Girdle of Theotokos, Okona icon, etc.), brought to Georgia by Princess Helen as her dowry, namely, synthesis and propompe. The image shows crowds set against the backdrop of the major cathedrals and monasteries of Tao-Klarjeti. Two of these monuments – Otkhta Eklesia and Bana – survive and are named in inscriptions. The murals might be interpreted in a way that the Georgian crown got some territories as a dowery of the Byzantine princess. John Skylitzes’ account prove this suggestion. These territories, i.e. western part of Imier Tao might have been lost in the 1040-50s during the active confrontation with the Byzantines and their Georgian allies. However, by 1080 the Parkhali district was within the Georgian borders. As for the eastern part of Imier Tao, that is the Oltisi and Mamrovani districts, it remained within the Empire till the 1070s. There is no direct evidence that it had been retaken by the Georgian kingdom. The case of Imier Tao shows that Byzantine-Georgian relationships, as well as Byzantine oikomenism, were multifaceted. And Byzantium’s Caucasian frontiers deserve further scholarly attention.
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    ჯვაროსნული მონეტების იკონოგრაფია
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023) წურწუმია, მამუკა
    The Jerusalem cross is comprised of four small equilateral yellow crosses positioned within the branches of a central cross. The first Crusaders are usually depicted with the Jerusalem Cross, especially Godfrey Bouillon (1060-1100), whose later depictions consistently feature him accompanied by five crosses. This is historically inaccurate. Despite popular opinion, the adoption of the five-cross configuration, symbolizing Jerusalem, occurred relatively later. It is absent from the early phases of the Crusades and remained entirely unfamiliar in Palestine. Furthermore, the coins minted in the Kingdom of Jerusalem do not showcase the presence of the five crosses. The coins minted by the Crusader states exhibit significant diversity. The influence of their Muslim neighbors, particularly Syria and Egypt, is evident on the coins of the kings of Jerusalem and the counts of Tripoli, situated further south. In the northern regions, including Edessa, Antioch, and Cyprus, Byzantine influence held sway. Simultaneously, it is entirely natural that Crusader currency retained its distinct Western European characteristics. The interplay among these three political-cultural centers in the medieval world – European, Byzantine, and Muslim – played a crucial role in shaping the appearance and variety of Crusader money. Latin money, stemming from the Carolingian denarius, inherited a concise and clear design. Typically, the name of the issuer, and often their title, were inscribed in a circular fashion around the center on the obverse side, while the mintage details were featured on the reverse. On Crusader money, the predominant religious and heraldic symbol was a cross of various shapes, prominently depicted at the coin’s center. Analysis of Crusader coins reveals that there is no consistent pattern in the placement of bezants, pellets, or crescents within the quadrants of the cross. This suggests that the Crusaders did not assign significant importance to the quantity and arrangement of these symbols within the central cross. It is evident that these elements did not bear any heraldic significance and were primarily employed for decorative purposes. The five-cross composition, later known as the Jerusalem cross, first appeared on a coin only in the year 1277. In this year, Charles I of Anjou (1266-85) was crowned King of Jerusalem, and to commemorate this occasion, he minted a gold coin featuring his new coat of arms on the reverse side, seamlessly blending the Jerusalem cross with the Angevin lilies. It’s worth noting that in addition to the small crosses placed in the four corners, there is also a fifth cross, and this feature is also observed on Charles’s silver coins. In general, the analysis of his coins suggests that during this period, the five-cross composition had not yet reached its final and widespread form. In the cantons of the central cross of various shapes, bezants, wedges, and stars were used in addition to small crosses. Nevertheless, it is evident that by this time, the large cross surrounded by small crosses was already being recognized as a symbol associated with Jerusalem, and its final form was soon to be established. A classical five-cross composition, with four small crosses in each of the four corners of the central cross, appears in Cyprus during the rule of Henry II’s brother Amalric (1306-10) on coins minted in their names, featuring the Jerusalem cross on the obverse side. On the coins minted only in the name of Amalric, the depiction changes slightly: one half of the heraldic shield on the reverse side of the coin displays the cross of Jerusalem, while the other half showcases the coat of arms of the Lusignans. This divided shield is also seen earlier on the coin of Charles of Anjou, where the French lilies next to the Jerusalem cross represent Charles’s coat of arms, and here the lion represents the coat of arms of the Lusignans. It seems that this composition was deliberately chosen by the Lusignans as a strong claim to the kingdom of Jerusalem. The tradition established by Amalric is continued by Henry II (1285-1306, 1310-24), whose silver coinage during his second reign (1310-24) features engravings of the cross of Jerusalem. In the study of Crusader coins, it is evident that the Jerusalem cross has evolved over time. The five-cross configuration, symbolizing Jerusalem, came into use later and was absent from the early phases of the Crusades. This five-cross composition appeared on a coin in 1277 when Charles I of Anjou was crowned King of Jerusalem. The composition continued to evolve, with the classical five-cross design appearing in Cyprus during the rule of Lusignans. This evolution depicted on Crusader coins reflects the historical and heraldic changes of the Jerusalem Cross and highlights its growing importance.