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    კავკასიაში მოგზაური უცხოელები რუსეთის მეცნიერებათა აკადემიის სამსახურში
    (არტანუჯი / Artanuji, 2024) კანდელაკი, დალი / Kandelaki, Dali
    From 1725, the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences was also involved in the process of exploring the Russian Empire. The government of the empire tried in every possible way to collect various materials about the country. TheCaucasus was also included in the research area. It is important to study the identity of the members of the expedition sent by the Academy of Sciences to the Caucasus in the second part of the 18th century and the first decade of the 19th century, the real tasks given to them and the results of their research. It should be noted that the members of the scientific expedition were mostly scientists of German origin. Some of them were born in Russia, others were invited. In 1768 a young scientist, 23-year-old Johann Anton Güldenstädt was invited to the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences to participate in an expedition planned by the Academy to various regions of Russia, including the North Caucasus and Georgia. Due to the collected invaluable material, Güldenstedt is even considered the founder of Caucasian Studies. Along with scientists, people of various professions were necessary for these expeditions, namely artists, translators, escorts and others. A young, 22-year-old German artist, Heinrich Theodor Wehle, took part in one of the expeditions. His paintings with the views of Georgia and landscapes of Tbilisi are exhibited in German museums. His notes about the trip to the Caucasus have not yet been traced, but based on his paintings and Musin-Pushkin’s notes, many scholars have tried to reconstruct the path that the German artist took during his travels. The Academy sent the German linguist-orientalist Heinrich Julius von Klaproth to the Caucasus in 1807 to conduct philological, ethnographic and historical research. He was tasked to critically examine and supplement the works of his predecessor scholar experts on the Caucasus. Klaproth’s journey to the Caucasus was reflected in several books. It can be claimed that after Güldenstädt, Klaproth ranks first among the learned travellers with his knowledge and abundance of information. It should be noted that all expeditions, regardless of their composition, had clear military-strategic goals. The information gathered by the members of the expedition was reflected in their papers and reports.
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    ისტორიკოსის ტერიტორიის მეპატრონე
    (მერიდიანი, 2009) ლაბაძე, რუსუდან / Labadze, Rusudan
    "The Peasants of Laguedoc", "The Territory of the Historian", The History of Climate since the Yesr 1000", "Montaillou. Cathars and Catholics in a French Village" (1294-1324) - this is a short list of Ladurie's works. In these books the scholar extraordinarily expanded the borders of the historian's territory. He included the analysis of quantitative information into research, and the appearance of climate - a new phenomenon, under the protection of Clio became permanently connected with the French historian's name. Ladurie's "History without Human Beings" is a history of nature where human being only lives and does not rule. The Georgian translation of one of the chapters of "Montaillou" - "Temporary Unions" with a commentary, is appended to the article.
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    ფრანგული ისტორიული დისკურსი და ემანუელ ლე რუა ლადიურის ბესტსელერი
    (საქართველოს მეცნიერებათა ეროვნული აკადემია / Georgian National Academy of Sciences, 2015) ლაბაძე, რუსუდან / Labadze, Rusudan
    The paper is concerned with the study of the French historical revolution: the Annales School and the New History. The Annales School is the innovatory trend which had an important influence upon the historiography of the 20th century. Annales approach rejected the predominant emphasis on political history by positivism of the 19th century historians. Their ideal was the “total history” which implied to reflect thoroughly the historical reality. Marc Bloch died during the Second World War and Lucien Febvre continued to carry on the Annales approach. In 1947 was founded by him the 6th section of the École pratique des hautes études. The second era of Annales’ historiography is connected with the name of Fernand Braudel who pioneered la longue durée, an approach forstudying long-term structures over historical events. Since 1960s the history of mentalities getting characteristic for the Annales School. Attitudes toward death, childhood, love, sexuality etc. had become prevailed in the works of Ph. Ariès, M. Vovelle, J. Le Goff, E. Le Roy Ladurie. The book « Montaillou, village Occitan de 1294 à 1324 »had been published in 1975. The work is based on the unique source – notes of the Inquisition active in 1318-1325 in the village of Montaillou against Cathar heresy. It is shown in the paper how E. Ladurie managed to offer a picture of both the material and mental worlds of the villagers. The Georgian translation of the chapter “Death in Montaillou” with a commentary, is appended to the article.
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    საიქიოს მესამე ქვეყნის დაბადება
    (2009) ლაბაძე, რუსუდან / Labadze, Rusudan
    The article deals with the study of monograph of a famous French historian, Jacques Le Goff - The Birth of Purgatory, which was printed in Paris in 1981. In the cited work is discussed an important problem of the Western Christianity, such as the change of the other world picture (hell-paradise) with a new one (hell-purgatory-paradise). According to Jacques Le Goff purgatory as the space and time was formed between 3th-12th centuries and was connected with the redemption of some sins after death by purifying fire. It was the faith of temporal punishment, where souls of those who have died without mortal sin can expiate their venial sins by temporary suffering before enter heaven. The faith of purgatory was born in practice: suffrages of the living by prayers, alms and other good works for the salvation of their souls who have died. The Biblical dossier of purgatory (which was denied by the most of heretics in the middle ages and Protestants) consists of four texts: 1.In the Old Testament: The sacrifice ordered by Jude Maccabeus for the redemption of sins of the soldiers who died in battle (II Mac. XII, 41-46); 2.In the New Testament: a. The text from the Gospel according to Matthew which mentions about forgiving sins in a next world (Matthew XII, 31-32); b. The passage from the Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians, which describes the purification of some category of sinners after death quasi per ignem (so as through fire) (I Corinthians, III, 11-15), text of Saint Paul which was the object of the most comments in the middle ages; c. The history of the poor Lazarus and the rich man (Luke, XVI, 19-31). According to Jacques Le Goff Abraham’s bosom described in the Gospel was the first Christian incarnation of purgatory. The idea about an intermediate place and time of the other world on a theological level appeared with refrigerium (refreshing place) of Tertullian, while the ideas of Clement of Alexandria and Origen have no posterity in Greek Christianity. Veritable Fathers of purgatory St.Augustine and Gregory the Great laid down theoretical foundations to the doctrine of purgatory rejected by the Eastern Church during the debates of the 12-th century. Between 1170-1180 in Latin appeared the noun purgatorium, which practically was the birth of purgatory as the determined place. In the 13-th century purgatory have well installed in the Western Christianity: on a dogmatic level in the letter of Innocent IV (1254) and in the reports of the second Council of Lyons (1274) within the union of Latin and Greek Churches; On a theological level with integration of purgatory in the great theological systems; And in believers, on a mass level, by sermons and the exempla. At last the poetic triumph of purgatory - The Divine Comedyof Dante, where the third place of the other world settled down between hell and paradise.
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    ზარზმის მონასტერი სერაპიონ ზარზმელის „ცხოვრების“ მიხედვით
    (2007) ლაბაძე, რუსუდან / Labadze, Rusudan
    The present publication is dedicated to one of the most important monasteries – Zarzma, as the centre of divine service, spirituality, historic and intellectual life. The history of founding Zarzma Monastery is described in the Life of Serapion of Zarzma. There are different points of view in connection with dating the work "Tskhovreba" (Life) of the founder Zarzma Monastery and its first Father-Superior - Serapion. In this chapter are discussed the opinions that have been expressed in scholarship on the basis of comparing the “Life" with the information of other sources. There are two groups of scholars, having different opinions on this question. One asserts that the work was written earlier, the other one presents more and more arguments to prove its being of a later date, thus trying to get the better of their opponents. The supporters of the point of view of the earlier dating think that the work represents the history of the 2nd half of the 6th century, and the work itself was written in the 1st half of the 7th century; the supporters of the other point of view consider that Serapion's vita describes the situation, existing in the 2nd half of the 9th century (MsNatelaVachnadze still more narrowed this date and declared it to be the 80s of the 9th century), and it must have been written in the 1st half of the 10th century, much earlier than 951. There is a third intermediate point of view (Simon NikolozJanashia) who thought that the date shouldn't have been lower than the 8th century. The earlier dating of the” Life" was raised by the Georgian scholar Mr. PavleIngorokva; however, in the much later academic edition of scholar's work did not include this subject in it at all. In this way the scholar himself rejected his own point of view about "Tskhovreba" having been written in earlier times. Meanwhile, the point f view of the later dating was universally acknowledged (Donald Rayfield).
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    ექვთიმე თაყაიშვილის პუბლიკაციები უცხოურ სამეცნიერო გამოცემებში (1927-1938 წწ.)
    (არტანუჯი, 2014) ლაბაძე, რუსუდან/ Labadze, Rusudan
    The article deals with EkvtimeTakaishvili's works published in foreign editions in the period of his French emigration, studied and considered on the basis of archive materials. As it is known, EkvtimeTakaishvili printed eleven articles in the scholarly publications of Paris, Brussels and London in 1927-1938. The articles are written in the French and English languages. These publications are as follows: Journal Asiatique, Byzantion, Georgica, Review de l'Orient Chrétien and Prométhée. The article is appended by the list of E. Takaishvili's foreign publications, but the list is not chronological. It is compiled according to the publications, presented in the languages of the original and the Georgian language, also our translation from french of the article, printed in the magazine Promethee. This historical essay, concerning the intellectual life in Georgia, unlike EkvtimeTakaishvili's other works, more or less known in his mother country before they were published abroad, was never published in Georgian.So it was unknown to the scholarly society up to the present day.
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    რეცენზია ნაშრომზე – ანტიკური ხანის ბერძნულ-ლათინური წარწერები, როგორც საქართველოს ისტორიის წყარო. ავტორები: ნათია ფიფია, ეკატერინე კობახიძე, თედო დუნდუა
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023) მშვილდაძე, მარიკა / Mshvildadze, Marika
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    ქართველი ერის შესახებ ანუ თანატოსის სინდრომი
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023) შველიძე, დიმიტრი / Shvelidze, Dimitri
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    რეცენზია წიგნზე – "ანტიკური ხანის ბერძნულ-ლათინური წარწერები, როგორც საქართველოს ისტორიის წყარო" ავტორები: ნათია ფიფია, ეკატერინე კობახიძე, თედო დუნდუა
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023) ტონია, ნანა / Tonia, Nana
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    უცხოური ფირმების საქმიანობა საქართველოში XX საუკუნის 20-იან წლებში. წყაროს პუბლიკაცია (დოკუმენტები)
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023) კოხრეიძე, არჩილ / Kokhreidze, Archil; მირიანაშვილი, ნათია / Mirianashvili, Natia; შოშიაშვილი, ნოდარ / Shoshiashvili, Nodar
    In the 20s of the 20th century, the Soviet Union began to implement the New Economic Policy, which was approved at the 10th Party Congress on March 14, 1921. The New Economic Policy replaced the previously existing policy of War Communism, which was necessary in the face of the civil war in the country and the foreign intervention and which brought Soviet Russia to economic collapse. Georgia did not pursue the policy of War Communism. The break that took place in Russia as a result of the policy of War Communism, did not occurred in Georgia. The New Economic Policy in Georgia gave a powerful impetus to the development of the economy. The national economy and the economy as a whole began to recover. Market relations were allowed. But this was only a temporary policy, the purpose of which was to create favorable conditions for the development of socialism. The main goal of the New Economic Policy was to eliminate tension in society and strengthen the social base for the Soviet power. It was also necessary to avoid a further collapse of the economy, overcome the crisis and restore the economy. Besides under the New Economic Policy the government began to implement a new foreign policy and tried to overcome the international isolation of the country. The Bolsheviks were forced to allow free trade and to legalize the private production. This policy was only a temporary tactical retreat on the part of the Bolsheviks. They were forced to admit that in this way, to a certain extent, the capitalism was restored in the country. As a result, the trade turnover increased powerfully and a window to Europe was opened. Powerful flows of industrial goods and products began to come to Georgia from abroad. Almost all Soviet republics sent their representatives to Tbilisi and Batumi to purchase goods. Georgia also played a transit role between Europe and the republics of the Soviet Union. Georgia had relationships with many foreign firms. Among them were firms from Sweden that imported matches and agricultural machinery to Georgia. Below we present several documents that illustrate these relations between Georgia and Sweden. One of these Swedish companies was Joint Stock Company “Atlas-Diesel”. Its head office was in Stockholm. It was founded in 1917 (previously there were two separate companies – “Atlas” and “Diesel”, which later merged into one joint-stock company), and its branch operated in Tbilisi.
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    საქართველოს პირველი რესპუბლიკის უკანასკნელი თვეები (პოლიტიკურ-დიპლომატიური რაკურსი)
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023) შველიძე, დიმიტრი / Shvelidze, Dimitri
    In the present work, we particularly focus on the process of negotiations on the trade agreement between Soviet Russia and Great Britain in 1920-1921. The negotiations have been going on for almost over a year and went through several stages. It turns out that in the course of the negotiations the question of the future state of Georgia was also discussed. Initially, and for a long time Great Britain considered Georgia within its sphere of protection and influence. The Soviet Russia opposed such a status. The negotiations dragged on due to the disagreement on the issue of Georgia. At the final stage of the negotiations, Great Britain was forced to back down and remove the issue of Georgia from the text of the agreement. This meant that Soviet Russia managed to maintain Georgia as part of the new Soviet empire. This conceptual approach is documented for the first time in our historiography. The paper also covers other topics.
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    გიორგი V ბრწყინვალის ქართული ტიტულატურისათვის
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023) ბახტაძე, მიხეილ / Bakhtadze, Mikheil
    We have very little information about Giorgi the Brilliant, and what we have, they do not record the full Georgian title of the king. In the document of Giorgi V that has reached us, unfortunately, the full title of the king is not written. Only the last phrase of the title is recorded. If we take into account the titles of the kings of the united Georgia, it is clear that the beginning of the titles would be – “By the will of God, the king of the Abkhazians, Kartvelians, Ranians, Kakhetian and Armenians, Sharvansha and Shahansha.” Another point to be considered is that from the end of the 14th century another formulation appears in the title of the Bagrations – the owner of Likht-Imer and Likht-Amer and the unifier of both kingdoms. For the first time such a title is confirmed in the 1393 charter of Giorgi VII. Then similar formula can be found already in the charters of 1413, 1419, 1420 and 1441 of Alexander I. The question arises, when should the formula – owner of Likht-Imer and Likht-Amer appear? Only after the unity of the divided kingdom was restored, and it happened during the reign of Giorgi the Brilliant. Theoretically, the title – “owner of Likht-Imer and Likht-Amer” could be accepted for the first time by: Giorgi V the Brilliant, David IX, Bagrat V or even Giorgi VII. Why was it necessary to introduce this title? The traditional titulature no longer reflected reality (for several centuries there were no more Abkhazian, Kartvelian, Ranian and Kakhetian kingdoms) and to some extent reflected “frozen reality”. They needed a title that reflected the reality of that era and would be understandable to everyone. “Owener Licht-Imer and Licht-Amer” was a formula, which reflected this situation. In our opinion, the full Georgian title of Giorgi the Brilliant could have been – the king of Abkhazians, Kartvelians, Ranians, Kakhetians and Armenians, Sharvansha and Shahansha, the unifier of Likht-Imer and Likht-Amer, the ruler of all the East and West.
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    რუსეთის იმპერიის კოლონიზატორული პოლიტიკა საქართველოში, "ეკონომიკური რუსიფიკაცია"
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023) ჩიქობავა, აკაკი / Chikobava, Akaki
    In parallel of the annexation of the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti and gradual occupation of the rest of Georgian territories, the Russian Imperial government used various methods to cement its rule in Georgia. Victories in the Russo-Persian and Russo-Ottoman wars in the late 1820s gave the opportunity to the imperial court to start complete and all-around subjugation of the South Caucasus. For this, it was necessary to emigrate the proponents of the imperial rule from the metropolis into the South Caucasus, as well as to gain active supporters on the ground. Settlers had to be provided with necessary land and appropriate means of production that allowed them to start their own agricultural production. Contemporary scientific literature touches upon the question of “Russifications” in the plural, rather than Russification as a singularity. The implications of this division and the role of the economic dimension of the process are the major research areas of our article. Our argument is constructed around. Several main topics: What are the causes of the active presence of the Russian Empire in the South Caucasus and its annexation? What is the economic dimension of the annexation and what kind of benefits did them Russian Empire expect from it? What is the main difference between the Russification policy of the first half of the 19th century and the Russian Eastern policy of Malorus and other peripheral areas? What was the economic basis for the establishment of colonies and migration processes in Georgia and the South Caucasus region in general? How is the process of the expansion of the Russian trade and industrial capital, and the search for new sources of raw materials connected to it? Migration processes in the internal territories of Russia: what are their function and what are the differences between the internal and external migration processes?
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    რეცენზია – ნიკოლოზ მურღულიას წიგნზე "ეგრისის სამეფოს გამაგრების სისტემა" (თბილისი, 2023)
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023) ფიფია, ნათია / Phiphia, Natia
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    დასახლების ფორმები და ინდივიდუალური კარ-მიდამოს მოწყობა სამეგრელოში (წალენჯიხის მუნიციპალიტეტის მაგალითზე)
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023) ციმინტია, ქეთევან/ Tsimintia, Ketevan
    The types of settlement and arrangement of country estates have been changing over time in Samegrelo. Tsalenjikha municipality reflects these changes fully. While plentiful elements appeared in the 20th and beginning of the 21st centuries, historical forms of settlement still remained popular. Settlement types vary and depend on the relief of the specific village. Settlements were mostly located in or near forests before the Soviet era, while later changes brought better infrastructure and improved transportation, subsequently resulting in the appearance of settlements near constructed roads. Some people still prefer to live on hills that are not very connected to new roads. However, most of the people now live in settlements close to roads. Settlements near rivers are rare but still exist. Places of settlement have also changed; people have migrated as a result of new building projects like the construction of Enguri Dam. In other cases, people moved and settled in abandoned or desolated places for different reasons. The morphology of the settlement is also varied; some are patronymic, while others are more urban and have a mixed population—people of different origins live there. Modern patronymic settlements are monogenous—people with one family name and, in some instances, even of the same clan—live there together. The arrangement and forms of country estates are also diverse in the municipality, as they are in the rest of Samegrelo; some estates have one floor, while others have two floors. Different additional buildings connected with agricultural and other economic activities are also present. They are as follows: 1) Jargvali: a house built from logs, now used for storage; 2) Bagh: a small building for keeping corn; 3) cow-house; 4) hen-house; 5) Patskha: a wicker house, etc. Some estates also have small buildings used for rituals called "Khvama,” which have pre-Christian shades and are usually practiced individually by families. The historical form of a house is an Oda-house, which still stays popular; however, the majority of them were built more than a century ago–at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. Two-story houses in the 50s and 70s of the 20th century were built with stone and wood; the first floor was built with stone and concrete, while the second was constructed with wood, mostly with material from chestnut trees. Post-Soviet houses are even more diverse; they combine elements of different ages and bear some novelties as well.
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    ისტორიულ პირებსა და მოვლენებთან დაკავშირებული ხალხური ტექსტების თავისებურება
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023) მამისიმედიშვილი, ხვთისო/ Mamisimedishvili, Khvtiso
    The Georgian people have created a thematically rich and genre-diverse folklore regarding historical persons and events. Unlike official historiography, folk texts do not convey a single historical process, since they attribute the events of the past to only a few historical figures or kings, which led to the cyclical nature of these types of literary works. Folklore is an artistic creation, and in it characters sometimes go far beyond their prototypes. Although the legend of Davit Agmashenebeli (Builder) is about the construction of a Christian temple, the text about the suppression of an evil force uses an ancient Zoroastrian archetype as a plot. As we can see, the folklore tradition did not account for the true heroic deeds of Davit Agmashenebeli and created his mythological biography. The folk poem equipped King Tamar with the attributes of a Demiurge and thus reactualized the ancient cosmogonic myth. Tamar’s confrontation with the sea is reminiscent of the myth of the battle between the God and the Sea Monster of ancient peoples. In folk texts, historical heroes undergo a kind of metamorphosis, and they become mythological heroes with connections to supernatural forces. Although the youth of Erekle II is well known from historical sources, his boyhood is represented by folk poetry with mythological archetypes. Like mythological heroes, King Erekle is an orphan, an abandoned child. Somewhere, in the sacred space, a deer feeds him with its own milk, and finally a hunter finds the prince thrown into a straw. Unlike the ordinary heroic epics, in which the action takes place in an indefinite time and space, the events told in historical songs and legends are in contact with reality. In the imagination of the people historical orality patterns are real, because very real persons act in specific geographical settings, and these texts are often sacred because the main characters are ascribed supernatural qualities. The characters of the cycles created in the later period did not manage to turn into mythological heroes, and the historical events could not be fully integrated into the category of mythical actions. Samples of historical oral folk are extremely important for the study of Georgian culture. Folklore clearly shows how the collective consciousness perceives historical persons and events, how people look at the history of their country. Historical songs and tales provide valuable material for the study of archetypes and ancient poetic forms, since, as research has shown, historical persons and events in folk-literature are created according to mythological schemes, traditional models and ancient archetypes.
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    ზოგიერთი დეტალი გეორგიევსკის ტრაქტატთან დაკავშირებით
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023) თაბუაშვილი, აპოლონ
    Much has been written about the treaty of Georgievsk and numerous aspects concerning to this topic have been properly analyzed. Nevertheless, in our opinion, there are still some issues related to the treaty of Georgievsk that need further research. As we know, the final version of the agreement between the Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti was approved by the Russian Emperor in February 1783, and it was presented to Erekle II in the middle of May of the same year. The king of Kartl-Kakheti delayed the process for about a month and a half. The fact was that it was during this period that the information was spread about the liquidation of the Crimean Khanate and its annexation by the Russian Empire. It seems that this fact made the king think a lot and put forward a new suggestion – he demanded to reflect the right of coronation of Georgian monarchs as kings in the agreement. Archival documents prove that in the letter sent at the end of June 1783, Erekle II requested an additional guarantee for safeguarding his kingdom. Pavel Potemkin, the commander-in-chief of the Caucasus Line, had no right to include it in the treaty without the emperor's permission. Hence, this issue was not reflected in the treaty. Due to this fact, Erekle II was clearly dissatisfied and sent his representative Sulkhan Tumanishvili to St. Petersburg immediately after the return of the Georgian delegation to his homeland. This time, Erekle categorically demanded to reflect the issue of coronation in the treaty. Finally, in September 1783, the Russian emperor approved demands of Erekle II. An additional article was written, according to which the Georgian monarchs were allowed to be crowned as king. According to above-mentioned article Erekle II received from the Russian government an even stronger guarantee of the protection of his kingdom based on the legitimate treaty. One of the demands put forward by Erekle II was the issue of Catholicos. As it is known, the independence of the Georgian Church was limited by the treaty of Georgievsk. In response to this, the king focused on the autocephaly of the Georgian Church and asked the Russian side to take this fact into account. In this regard, the activity of the Georgian king brought certain results. The another disputed issue was related to the territorial claims of the Georgian king. Erekle II claimed both the south-western Georgia conquered by the Ottomans and the neighboring khanates. On the other hand, the Russian Empire planned to take the khanates of the region under its protection and hoped for the help of the Georgian king in this matter. Even before the signing of the treaty, the Georgian side put forward a proposal that the territorial claims of Erekle II should be reflected in his titulature, although the Russian representatives did not meet this request at the time. In such conditions, even the Georgian king refrained from helping the Russians in Azerbaijan, for which Pavel Potemkin expressed his concerns towards the actions of the Georgians. Finally, a certain agreement was reached between the parties – the final version of the treaty included titulature of Erekle the way it was requested by the Georgian side. According to the above-mentioned titulature, Russia recognized Erekle's rights to the khanates of Yerevan, Ganja, Sheki and Shirvan, also Kaki (Sultanate of Elisu and Jar-Balakan) neighbouring Kartli-Kakheti Kingdom. At the same time, the king was announced as the heir of Samtskhe-Saatabago. On the other hand, the Georgian king sent his representatives to the khanates of Karabakh and Khoy and promised to act in favor of the interests of the Russian Empire. As for the form of address, according to the Treaty of Georgievsk, the Georgian king was referred to by the lower epithet. According to the Georgians, Erekle II was traditionally named as “Highness”, a more elevated epithet, hence they demanded the official establishment of the same epithet for their king. As a result, the Imperial court of Russia agreed to the above-mentioned request of the Georgians.
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    თავად სუმბათაშვილთა საგვარეულოს ისტორიიდან
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023) ჯავახიშვილი, ნიკო/ Javakhishvili, Niko
    This article reviews the history of the Sumbatashvilis – one of the prominent noble families in Kartli – the Central part of Georgian kingdom. They were high ranked nobles, princes (in Georg. “Tavadi”). In the historical sources of 17th-19th centuries the princes Sumbatashvilis are named as the faithful warriors and administrators, specifically, ober-kamerhers/garderobmeisters (in Georg. “Meitari”), community governors (in Georg. “Mouravi”), chief cashiers (in Georg. “Molaretukhutsesi”), censor of military servismen (in Georg. “Lashkarnivisi”) of Georgian kings from Bagrationi royal dynasty.. For such loyalty to the kings the princes Sumbatashvilis were highly appreciated by the Georgian kings.
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    გიორგი მცირის ეპისტოლე წმ. გიორგი შეყენებულისადმი
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023) სულავა, ნესტან/ Sulava Nestan
    Giorgi Mtsireʼs epistle, which precedes his hagiographic work “The life of St. Giorgi Mtatsmindeli”, has historical and rhetorical value. It helps us to understand the purpose of the writer-hagiographer, the purpose of the epistle, in determining the importance of works about St. Giorgi Mtatsmindeli, in understanding the relationship between Giorgi Mtatsmindeli and Giorgi Mtsire, their education, their place in society, authority, and most importantly, their spiritual image, the purpose of the works and the date of writing, the characteristics of hagiographic genre works, the theological knowledge of the writer, in the perception of worldview and artistic thinking space. Georgian hagiography uses the epistolary style to trace its purposefulness. They weaved their worldview, literary-aesthetic views, which reflected the spirit of the era, social situation and requirements. The observation proves that the archetype of the epistle of Giorgi Mtsire, as well as the epistle of Samoel Catholicos of Kartli and Iovane Sabanisdze, is the epistolary part of the New Testament, the seven Catholic epistles and the fourteen epistles of Paul, but they differ from each other. The difference between the epistolary heritage of the New Testament and, in general, the epistles of hagiography, in particular, the epistle of Giorgi Mtsire, is visible. The main purpose of the epistles of the apostles was to preach the Christian doctrine, while the epistle used for hagiographic works has a different purpose, it informs the reader about the necessity of creating the works, and informs him of the situation due to which it was created. As a result of the observation, it was revealed that the epistle with an individuality of Giorgi Mtsire has the greatest theological and literary significance. In his epistle, the hagiographer brought his main point to the reader, presented the basis of his writings, and explained the purpose of his writings.
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    Arabs, Khazars and the Battle for Transcontinental Trade Routes (7th-13th centuries)
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023) Avdaliani, Emil