ვერიზმი XIX საუკუნის პროზაში. VERISMO IN THE PROSE OF THE XIX CENTURY

Abstract
The problem of verismo appears in the prose works created at the end of the XIX century. Verismo is characterized by two directions. Human misery and difficult social conditions are reflected in one cycle of short stories, while the writings of the other group of writers show an attempt to reflect the inner world of a human. If the first depicts rural life, the second group of writers depicts urban life and creates the faces of intellectuals. “Naturalist elements are presented in a sufficient dose in the works of the first group of writers. This branch of the Georgian writers of the 90s is closer to the Italian variety of naturalism, which is known as Verismo” (Andronikashvili, 1984:209). Egnate Ninoshvili is the most visible representative of this direction. The process of deglorification of the characters is typical for such compositions. The characters of Egnate Ninoshvili feel their feebleness in the universe, they are drained of high ideals and their survival instinct drives them. We find such faces of characters in all creative works of the writer. Italy is the birthplace of verismo and its founder father is Giovanni Verga. Representatives of Italian Verismo are also Capuana and Pirandello, however, Luigi Pirandello is freed from the influence of Verismo in the second stage of his creative works. It is noteworthy that in the early nineteenth century, Romanticism introduced the problem of the “extra man” into literature. This is a person isolated from society, locked in himself. The question of the relation between the ideal and the reality creates a contradiction in its existence. This is not the face of a human in public relations. Realists portrayed their characters in real public relations, in specific social, historical, and cultural contexts. In real human relationships, their face and character are formed. At the same time, it raises the issue of human alienation. “The authors of the works ask the question, what should be the relationship between the individual and the society, and the society must answer this question” (Vardoshvili, 2018:94). The characters, depicted in the social novel characteristic for critical realism, are powerful artistic figures fighting against vices in the public relations. At the same time, the realists oppose decadent literature. Thus, the “extra man” at the beginning of the century appears to be a “little man” at the end of the century. The problem of the “little man” is related to the issue of verismo in the world literature.
Description
Keywords
ვერიზმი, ქართული, ევროპული, ლიტერატურა, Verismo, Georgian, European, literature
Citation
ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტი ჰუმანიტარულ მეცნიერებათა ფაკულტეტი, აკადემიკოს მარიამ ლორთქიფანიძის დაბადებიდან 100 წლის იუბილესადმი მიძღვნილი XVI საფაკულტეტო სამეცნიერო კონფერენცია, თეზისები, თბილისი, 2022, გვ.: 99-103 / Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Faculty of Humanities, 16th FACULTY SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE IN HONOUR OF THE 100th ANNIVERSARY OF THE BIRTH OF MARIAM LORTKIPANIDZE, Abstracts, Tbilisi, 2022, pp.: 99-103