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    ამიერკავკასიის საბჭოთა-ფედერაციული რესპუბლიკის 1922 წლის კონსტიტუციის ენობრივი რეგულაციები/ Language regulations of the 1922 Constitution of the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Republic
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023-04-27) ჭაავა/ Tchaava, სოფიკო/ Sofiko
    Within the framework of the project "Functioning of languages in the Abkhazian ASSR in the context of Soviet policy (the 30s of XX century)" (code -OTG-I-22-232) funded by the Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation in 2022, it is envisaged the description and analysis of the language regulations of the constitutions of the Transcaucasian Federation, Soviet Union, Georgian SSR, Abkhazian ASSR. The Constitution of the Transcaucasian Federal Republic was adopted on December 13, 1922. It is known that the mentioned political union operated until 1936, and accordingly, the countries united in it were obliged to protect and fulfill various legal requirements in the Constitution. An important place in the provisions of the key law is occupied by the separate articles reflecting the use of languages, which describe in detail where and how languages of the republic, state languages, languages of national minorities, local/regional main languages, etc. should be used. The Constitution of the Transcaucasian Federation regulated the following fields in terms of language use: 1. State institutions; 2. Departments of railways and highways; 3. Railway and highway lines; 4. Army divisions and institutions. In order to better control the linguistic environment of each of them, relevant decrees and regulations were created, in which separate issues of language functioning were described in detail. These documents show that the Russian language was used in communication between the highest governing bodies, all the main documents were to be drawn up in this language only, and any economic, technical and money-related information was to be written in Russian only. To justify this fact, the legislators pointed out that there was no suitable scientific-technical terminology in the languages of the allied republics, so they had to use the Russian language. The languages of the Allied Republic (Georgian, Armenian and Azerbaijani) and the languages of national minorities should be used after Russian or together with Russian in communication with local organizations, and not in the union. The language regulations reflected in the Constitution of the Transcaucasian Federation are a kind of illustration of the Soviet language policy, according to which the Russian language should be the dominant and leading language in all spheres of the various allied republics and especially in their strategic objects.
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    ივანე ჯავახიშვილი საქართველოს მოსახლეობის აღწერების შესახებ/ Ivane Javakhishvili about Georgia’s population censuses
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023-04-27) შელია/ Shelia, მზია/ Mzia
    Ivane Javakhishvili's contribution to the search for written monuments on demography, their description, analysis and scientific evaluation is immeasurable. Based on historical sources, Ivane Javakhishvili substantiated the traditional character of the periodical (once every 7 years) population census in Georgia, studied the specific goals of the population census, the sources of financial support for the census, substantiated the existence of the census programme and found the norms of legal punishment for criminals in case of incorrect population census applicable then; assessed the impact of wars on the territorial movement of the population of the region and, accordingly, on the demographic decline; He negatively evaluated the methodology of 1926 population census based on ethnicity of that time and showed us its negative results. In particular, the categorization of Muslims into a separate ethnic group, which included Georgian Muslims, distorted the ethnic structure of the population, and gave ethnically diverse regions a reason to implement an improper educational policy on the one hand, and to violate the territorial integrity of the country, on the other hand.
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    ნ. ი. მარისა და ი. ჯავახიშვილის წერილები უნივერსიტეტზე, როგორც ქართული მეცნიერების ისტორიის ამსახველი წყარო/ The Letters by N. I. Marr and I. Javakhishvili on University, as a Source of the Reflection of History of the Georgian Science
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023-04-27) ვაშაკიძე/ Vashakidze, იამზე/ Iamze
    From the period of the establishment of the Russian civil government in Georgia (40s of the XІΧ century), the active struggle of the rulers of the imperial course began against the Georgian national identity and, first of all, the Georgian language, Georgian-language education (science). Even the generation of the 60s, commanded by I. Chavchavadze, led the struggle for the restoration of the rights of the Georgian language and raised the issue of opening a university. The collapse of the Russian Empire through the revolution (1917) accelerated the processes of national liberation in Georgia; After the restoration of the autocephaly of the Church (March 12, 1917), one of the important tasks was the establishment of the Georgian University. What was carried out on February 8, 1918 by the foremost Georgian intelligence, led by Ivane Javakhishvili – who was the worthy descendant of I. Chavchavadze. The establishment of the university exposed the opponents of Georgian-language education and science – the political and scientific elite of Russian Empire – whose important representative was the member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Georgian-born scientist Nikolai Yakovlevich Marr. I. Javakhishvili and N. Marr's letters reflect radically different positions on the planning and development of national science/education, namely:  N. Marr submitted to the Higher Schools Reforms Commission in the letter, he raised the issue of establishing the Caucasus State / Russian University in Tbilisi, instead of the Georgian University; He also made purely scientific issues: a. return to the homeland of the Georgian manuscripts and other antiquities moved to Russia at different times; b. conducting of archaeological research in historical areas of the country –Mtskheta and Nakalakevi the topic of political controversy, thus preparing the atmosphere for Bolshevik repression against the Georgian scientists.  I. Javakhishvili protects the interests of the National Higher Education and Science School, exposes N. Marr as an ideologue of the Empire. I. Javakhishvili expressed his civil position when the announced the refusal of the Council of Professors of the University “to cooperate in any form” with N.Marr, which caused the irritation of the Soviet politicians supporting N.Marr. A practical result of the political struggle against Georgian science was I. Javakhishvili’s dismissal from the Rector’s post (1926), which was followed by the dissolution of the University (1930). The problematic of the letters by two great scientists I. Javakhishvili and N. Marie does not lose its relevance even in modern conditions when the issue concerns the organization and promotion of national science.
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    ბინარული ოპოზიცია ჩემი/სხვა ლია სტურუას შეგრძნებების რომანში „რძეში ჩავარდნილი ქვა”/ Binary Opposition Self/Other (According to Lia Sturua’s novel of Perceptions - “A Stone Dropped in Milk”)
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023-04-27) წერეთელი/ Tsereteli, ნინო/ Nino
    Lia Sturua's novel of perceptions "A stone dropped in milk" is dedicated to the eternal city – Paris, a city known for its artistic freedom. It is indispensable for artists and it is quite logical that the theme of Paris, this special city, has been so relevant in world literature for centuries. The attitude of the author to the countries and cities always "has a literary cover". French literature and art are so close to Lia Sturua, that she never feels like a stranger in Paris. The city with its majesty is beyond all styles and trends for her. She refers to Parisian mornings as "a gift from God" and describes the city's streets as "a road going to the stars”. For the poetess, this city serves as a catharsis and a fleeting spring that could end at any moment. Here, the recollections of home intensify the sense of loss and tragedy. Paris is a true paradise for the poetess from Tbilisi who left the civil conflicts, darkness and cold behind, which is inspiring to write. The essay's author explores the history of the city and creates an interesting cross-cultural dialogue while keeping in mind Paris' multicultural past and present. In travel writing, there is a fairly stereotyped perception of Paris. The existence of a stereotype is a fact that has characteristic features unique only to it. In most cases, the stereotype is unchanged; it can be reduced and evaluated. When it comes to stereotypes, the evaluative moment is crucial since it usually occurs against the background of the opposition "mine – the other". From a binary oppositional pair, either its first member (“mine”) acts as an ideal, or, vice versa, the second member (“the other”) serves as an ideal against the background of its criticism. The novel of perceptions “A Stone Dropped in Milk" is a captivating literary text, which stands out for its variety of artistic forms, literary allusions and metaphorical thinking. France, Paris associated by the author of the essay with literature and literary characters from her youth, is not completely alien to her, even though this city will never become her native town. “A Stone Dropped in Milk” does not specifically demonstrate the concept “other”, which is in harmony with “own”. It’s worth mentioning, that “other” is maximally reduced. The topic of alienation is absolutely overcome in the narration.
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    ერთი შემოქმედის ავტობიოგრაფია, როგორც კოლექტიური ტრავმის ნარატივი: ლანა ღოღობერიძე/ Autobiography of one creator as a narrative of collective trauma: Lana Ghoghoberidze
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023-04-27) წერეთელი/ Tsereteli, ივანე/ Ivane
    A human is a narrator by nature. Narration implies not only description, but also interpretation. Deliberately or accidentally, meanings are attached to things, facts, and events that took place in the past. According to Robert Neimeyer, both narrators and audiences do so. The objective of this Article is to clarify how 9 April 1989 and 1991, the war and civil confrontation in Tbilisi, and a stressful series of sudden and intensive changes are analyzed, conceptualized, and interpreted in the memoirs created after Georgia became independent. The 1990s give an impetus to the revival of the past also in texts on life. Lana Gogoberidze's memoirs "What I remember and how I remember" are noteworthy in this regard. The final version of the book was published in 2019. As regards the texts of memoirs, this genre is called lifewriting in scientific literature and this notion is wider than just an (auto) biography. A lifewriting text is supposed to not only tell a story, but also analyze the process(es), which determined the concrete shape of the identity of a person. It analyzes not only how the paradigm or platform, on which the author is based on when writing a text, was created, but also why. "Life is not what you have lived, but what you remember and how you remember". These words by Lana Gogoberidze can be appropriate to be used as a definition of the genre.
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    ილია ჭავჭავაძე: ეროვნული ფიგურა წინააღმდეგობრივ საჯარო დისკურსებში/ Ilia Chavchavadze: National Figure in the Controversial Public Discourses
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023-04-27) ჩხაიძე/ Chkhaidze, ირაკლი/ Irakli
    Almost all parts of Georgian society view Ilia Chavchavadze (1837-1907) as a national figure. There is a lot of discussion regarding his legacy in both intellectual and popular circles. The groups, for whom Ilia is a cult figure, have completely different views on such important issues for the state of Georgia like the forms of nation building, models and directions of community development, foreign policy and others. Chavchavadze's image is frequently used to support different discourses on national identity. For some, Ilia represents traditional, conservative values; for others, he is the primary representation of Georgia's European identity. There are also those, for whom he is the architect of the Georgian nation's secularism, and those, for whom he is Saint Ilia the Righteous, who has been canonized by the Orthodox Church. The paper intends to examine Ilia Chavchavadze as a national hero, who is simultaneously the unquestionable leader of the pantheon of Georgian heroes with a widely accepted positive image and one of the most malleable names in Georgian history. Political or public movements, and the leaders of those movements, find "owning“ Ilia Chavchavadze as a hero, positioning themselves as those who champion his ideas, and speaking on behalf of Ilia to be particularly alluring. The figure of Ilia Chavchavadze is an "empty signifier," to use Ernesto Laclau's term, into which everyone inserts his or her desired content. The research topic is relevant because different perspectives and conflicting discourses on Ilia Chavchavadze have a big impact on contradictory political and social processes. Despite the abundance of materials related to Ilia Chavchavadze already in existence, hardly any works can be found in which the issue is investigated from a similar perspective.
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    კოლექტიური მეხსიერების ფორმირება გარდამავალ პერიოდში: გმირი-ანტიგმირის დისკურსი/ Formation of the New Memory in the Period of Transition: Hero-antihero Discourse
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023-04-27) ჩიქოვანი/ Chikovani, ნინო/ Nino
    Every epoch is associated with defining events as well as concrete figures. Their significance particularly increases in the period of transition: their images are constructed under conditions of rapid political and socio-cultural changes; they influence ongoing processes; these figures form the foundation for the memory of different groups and have unifying or dividing function. Applying the hero-antihero discourse for the analysis of the meanings assigned to them enables us to observe the process of formation of collective memory, which affects many other processes of the period. Out of the key figures of the 1990s, I have selected Merab Kostava who significantly influenced construction of the image of the modern hero as well as the perception and representation of events of the 1980s-1990s. His grave in Mtatsminda Pantheon - the most important symbolic area for the modern Georgian collective identity - was a step towards the formation of a new collective memory. The study aims to answer the following questions: How the image of Merab Kostava as a hero was constructed on the basis of cultural patterns preserved in the Georgian culture? Who were the antiheroes visÀ- vis his image? How do the mechanisms of remembering and forgetting work in this process? The research is based on the study of diverse narratives and employs the methods of content analysis and discourse analysis to explore the specific meanings that individuals/groups attach to social reality. The empirical material is comprehended within the framework of the theory of collective memory.
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    სირიული წყაროები ისლამის აღზევების შესახებ/ Syriac Sources on the Rise of Islam
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023-04-27) ჩაჩიბაია/ Chachibaia, მარიამ/ Mariam
    Many Syriac chroniclers considered the spread of Islam as a punishment which befell their people because of their own sins. Sometimes modern researchers put forward viewpoints for which actually no confirming document is visible in Syriac chronicles. Namely, allegedly, the Syriac-speaking Christians welcomed the invasion of the Arabs and the Muslim conquerors as liberators from the despotic fiscal and theological policies of the Byzantine rule. Although the Byzantine government considered a large part of the population as “Monophysite” and “Nestorian” heretics, in the texts of the “Syriac Orthodox” or “Church of the East” origin a hostile attitude is not in fact observable either to wards the Byzantine rule or towards the desire to strive to a unified faith in all patriarchates and language communities. On the contrary, nothing is specially anti-Byzantine or anti-Roman in the rare notes, which may be indicating in favour of the Arabs, but it should be noted that the anti-Byzantine mood of the Syriac- speaking Christians must be partially related to the disseminated heresy and official crimes of Byzantine rulers, both secular and ecclesiastical. It is possible that Syriac writers of the early times who took heed of the hegemonic role of Islam in the language of religion were those who tried to explain the Arab conquests and victories according to the book of Daniel. They wrote in the apocalyptic style. Such, a quite well-known work is the Apocalypse of Pseudo-Methodius, created initially in the Syriac language and translated later into Greek and Latin. On the basis of a detailed analysis of the text, Reinink assumes that the work was created in the Syriac Orthodox environment, in the border area of Byzantium and Persia, near the town of Sinjar. Apparently, this was a sharp reaction to the political and social situation in that area at that period. Other Syriac writers also explained the Arab domination over the Christians by the Apocalypse and predicted what would be the result of this. Until they all agreed that the sins of the unity and especially the doctrinal unrighteousness were the main reason for their unrest, all authors were not as optimistic about the expected results as the author of the Apocalypse Pseudo- Methodius.
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    ადამიანის სულიერი მოქმედების ამსახველი ტერმინოლოგიური ბუდისათვის ქართულში (ქართ.: გონების თვალი, გონების ყური, გულის თვალი, გულის ყური)/ For the Terminological Nest expressing Human Spiritual Activity in Georgian (Georg.: gonebis tvali "eye of the mind", gonebis quri "ear of the mind", gulis tvali "eye of the heart", gulis quri "ear of the heart")
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023-04-27) ღლონტი/ Ghlonti, მედეა/ Medea
    In his work “The Issues of the Georgian Language and History of Writing” (1956), Iv. Javakhishvili represents the trustful observation of the starting religious semantical functioning of some Old Georgian word combinations such as − old Georg. gonebis tualni "eyes of the mind" and old Georg. gonebis qurni “ears of the mind". These terms were used to deliver a “significant feature of the human spirit action” due to which an object is perceived not “by means of eyes and ears”, but only by mind implying that „only through the human mind can be the inner mental functioning carried on“ and as for the organ of speech, in this case it remains silent. Human mind is the organ which directs this invisible action and as for the words they “transmit only what is inside the mind”. The scientist notes that both these terms „were forgotten by the Georgian writers through the followed times and thus, the famous writer and scientist Sulknan-Saba Orbeliani did not include them into his dictionary“. Among the word-combinations (terms) under the discussion, the old Georg. term gonebis quri “ear of the mind" is not functioning including nowadays though it preserved the its old functional semantics; as for the old Georg. term gonebis tuali "eye of the mind", it also is not reflected in Sulkhan-Saba dictionary; though the old Georg. term gulis quri "ear of the heart", which is structurally similar to the above mentioned terms, is explained in the dictionary and it is met in the text of the Old Georgian piece of literature named “Tortures of St. Habo” (VIII century, the author is Iovane Sabanisdze): "qurni gulisa da gonebisa tquenisani“ − "the ears of the your heart and mind". We have also a word-combination term in Old Georgian − gulis tuali "eye of the heart" − literraly tualni gulisani "the eyes are the heart" (Ephessians 1, 17-18), where the term heart (Georg. guli) preserves the semantics of the "mind". All four terms (gonebis tuali, gonebis quri, gulis tuali and gulis quri) convey the true meaning of the synergy of mind and heart, which is clearly reflected in Scripture (e.g.: 3 Kings 3, 15, Book of Joshua 14, 7-8; Matthew 6, 21-22; Luke 24, 45; John 1, 1; Acts 2, 1-1; 4, 32; 1 Corinthians 14, 15 and others); resulted out of this, we see the inclusive terminological nest of the terms expressed through the Old Georgian word-combinations containing such components as “mind”, “heart” “eye” and “ear”. All four types of "phraseological" terms reflect the formulation of Godly lifestyle Choice, in which the determining function is given to God-loving mind, along with a purified heart.
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    მიმართვის ადგილისათვის ქართულ რთულ თანწყობილ წინადადებაში/ On the Place of Forms of Address in a Georgian Compound Sentence
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023-04-27) ქურდაძე/ Kurdadze, რამაზ/ Ramaz
    It is widely known that forms of address are not syntactically related to any member of the sentence, yet, they form part of the sentence. Unlike simple sentences or sentences with multiple parts, special attention should be paid to the forms of address in a compound sentence, in particular, we should analyze the following: which part of the sentence does the form of address pertain to? Does the form of address pertain to the entire compound sentence or to some of its concrete component clause? In this regard, the paper analyzes compound sentences containing forms of address. The following cases have been distinguished: a) Address forms part of one of the clauses of the compound sentence and it is semantically related to all the other clauses: დაწყნარდი ახლა, შე ქალო, შენს თავსაც გაუფრთხილდი, სამარეში ხომ არ ჩაჰყვები dats’q’nardi, še kalo, šens tavsats gauprtxildi, samareši xom ar zahqęvebi “Calm down, woman, take care of yourself, you cannot follow him into his grave”. b) Each component of a compound sentence has its own form of address pertaining to the clause in which it is found: იშრიალე, დიდო ვერხვო, იგუგუნე, დედამიწავ! išriale, dido verxvo, igugune, dedamits’av! “Rustle, great aspen, roar, mother earth!” c) One and the same form of address can be repeated in various components of the compound sentence with the aim of performing an expressive function. Such cases are chiefly found in poetry: ქარო, მოიტა ატმის ყვავილი, ქარო, ფოთლებიც შემომაყარე karo, moit’a at’mis q’vavili, karo, potlebits šemomaqřare “Wind, bring peach flowers, wind, throw leaves at me”. d) Separate mention should be made of cases when forms of address are found within one component of a compound sentence and are not related to other components: შენ არ გაი- ტეხო გული, შვილო, სანთელი და საკმეველი გზას არ დაკარგავს šen ar gait’exo guli, švilo, santeli da sak’meveli gzas ar dak’argavs “Don’t be disappointed, child, a candle and incense are never burnt in vain”. The paper has been implemented within the framework of a project “Information Structure and the Hypotactic Patterns of Kartvelian Languages”, FR-21-352, financed by Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation.
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    დღესასწაული, მეხსიერება და იდენტობა ქართულ საზოგადოებაში (ზოგადი ასპექტები)/ Holiday, Memory and Identity in the Georgian Society (General Aspects)
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023-04-27) ქვრივიშვილი/ Kvrivishvili, მაია/ Maia
    The perception of the past and the formation of memory significantly depend on the political conjuncture, a specific time and situation imposes its demands on the past, because it is known that history is one of the necessary factors for the legitimation of current public or state demands. It is also important that "the memory of the past determines the present identity~. Memory formation is the result of a deliberate process. Memory has a social nature, it is changeable and dynamic and provides a means of interpretation and representation in the process of purposeful formation of cultural identity. It is interesting how different political systems in Georgia use the holiday as a place of memory and therefore a source of identity: April 14, April 9 and May 26. The holiday is an important ritual. It is a symbolic opportunity to create and maintain an identity. During the celebration of the holiday, the emotional bond of the community takes place. The holiday as a date emphasizes the heritage, stimulates new ideas, and determines the future actions of the society. Three dates: April 14, April 9 and May 26, are associated with Georgian statehood and identity. Nevertheless, April 14 – Mother Language Day is not a state holiday, and the purpose of April 9 and May 26 is disputed. It is interesting how and what role the important dates of the recent history of Georgia played, or failed to play: April 14, April 9 and May 26. In general, a national holiday is an archetype of an institutional holiday, which is constantly charged with emotion and a solemn mood. The holiday is a symbolic area of memory that influences the formation of identity, consolidates the nation/society and plays an important role in the formation and development of state thinking.
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    ივანე ჯავახიშვილი ქართული ტერმინოლოგიის შესახებ/ Ivane Javakhishvili about Georgian Terminology
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023-04-27) ქაროსანიძე/ Karosanidze, ლია/ Lia
    A nation that does not develop its written language properly cannot reach the highest level of mental development" - this quote is from the famous letter of the nine Georgian scientists, which was published in 1915 in the "People's Newspaper~ N305. Ivane Javakhishvili also signed the letter with the title "About the Georgian dictionary". According to the authors, the dictionary was the necessary and most important tool that would contribute to the enrichment of the language. The letter describes the plan, which, among other things, meant updating the terminology. Giorgi Kazbegi – the chairman of the Society for Spreading Literacy among Georgians – was upset by this letter and the program later published as a book. Kazbegi considered the creation of bilingual dictionaries to be the first need, and according to Ivane Javakhishvili, the dictionary cannot be perfect if we do not work on reviving the Georgian dictionary material. "How will the compiler of your dictionary translate these words барабан, Иммунитет, Галерея and many others, if he has not studied these terms from ancient Georgian writing? " Does each one makes it up? Then what will be the significance of such fabricated terms?" Ivane Javakhishvili's reply to Kazbegi is interesting, along with other points of view, in that it contains his points of view about the principles of terminological work. Here and in his other works, Ivane Javakhishvili's attitude towards artificial terms is clearly visible. Nevertheless, Ivane Javakhishvili cooperated with the compilers of the first technical terminological dictionary - Sitkvari - and gave them some advice. In the Introduction to the dictionary, they thank Ivane Javakhishvili: "We consider it our duty to thank Prof. Ivane Javakhishvili, who gave us appropriate help and explanation for each of our appeals~. At the time, When the Nikoladze group was excessively criticized by some Georgian scientists, Ivane Javakhishvili collaborated with them, although it is also clear that he was essentially in favor of a different terminological work. It is true that he never and nowhere expressed a similar point of view about the Nikoladze and their associates, that Georgian terms are not suitable for bringing Europe closer or that an international term is more acceptable than a Georgian one, but, in general, he was against the establishment of artificially created terms, because he thought that correspondents of a new concepts had to be found in Georgian sources. He wanted to create a full-fledged ready-made base for Georgian terminology work from materials collected from all kinds of literature.
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    აფხაზეთიდან დევნილთა საერთო საცხოვრებელი, როგორც სოციალური საზღვარი თბილისში/ Shared residences for internally displaced persons from Abkhazia as a social boundary in Tbilisi
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023-04-27) ქამუშაძე/ Kamushadze, თეა/ Tea
    The presentation views the shared residences of displaced people as a social divide, a boundary with the rest of society. Despite the fact that the Abkhazia war took place over 30 years ago, the housing crisis for those who were displaced persists. Some of them continue to live in shared residences. The hotels operating in the Soviet era became symbols of the traumas caused by the loss of native homes. In the post-Soviet period, the spaces associated with the Soviet luxury, in the form of hotels, were connected to the theme of conflicts and IDPs. To discuss these issues, I will consider the Hotel “Sakartvelo”, which is located in the most prestigious and convenient area of the capital. A certain part of the population displaced from Abkhazia still lives in the Hotel Sakartvelo. The Hotel “Sakartvelo” enjoys a kind of “elite” status for the residents of Tbilisi and the displaced population. Its elitism is determined by several factors, one of which is that getting here required certain resources and a circle of acquaintances. Second, it is the previous life experience of the displaced people from Abkhazia, which distinguishes them from the intellectual point of view. IDPs from Abkhazia attempt to avoid attracting attention and avoid interaction with the media as much as they can in light of their tragic experiences. They make every effort to keep their hotel existence as discreet and unnoticeable to the city as possible. The Hotel Sakartvelo's structure is now considered a historical monument. The building has a lot of business interest. Numerous attempts to remove the IDPs from this building ended in vain precisely because of its “elitism”. The formal owners of the building oppress the IDPs living there as much as possible, not giving them the opportunity to make repairs. They did not allow the replacement of sewage pipes and the introduction of natural gas, due to the fact that the building has the status of a monument. Because of this, their daily life is becoming more and more unbearable. Some of those who have a certain income and livelihood are moving to a rented apartment, because living in a hotel has become more expensive and inconvenient. Based on interviews with its tenants and societal attitudes towards IDPs, I will talk about the Hotel “Sakartvelo” as a residence for them that has distinct social, cultural, and economic limitations. On the example of the Hotel Sakartvelo as an IDP residency, I will address the peculiarities of social boundaries for the displaced population and what kind of reality the hotel's location and status generate.
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    ივანე ჯავახიშვილი წმ. გიორგი მთაწმინდელის თხრობის სტილის შესახებ/ Ivane Javakhishvili On Narrative Style of St. Giorgi Mtatsmindeli
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023-04-27) სულავა/ Sulava, ნესტან/ Nestan
    Ivane Javakhishvili's research on the narration of monuments of ancient Georgian writing, namely About the style of St. Giorgi Mtatsmindeli's hagiographic writings, which is expressed in his fundamental work and the monograph published after his death, they are "Old Georgian Historical Writing~ and The publication of St. Giorgi Mtatsmindeli's writings and the study attached to it, acquired great importance for the general study of Georgian religious and secular literature, historical writing, and the conceptual issues of the Georgian Literary and Theological School of Athos. He was one of the first to pay attention and form his views to St. About the codicological-textological issues, sources and narrative style of Giorgi Mtatsmindeli's hagiographical works, thereby drawing attention to the methodological views of the writer-hagiographer. In this regard, Ivane Javakhishvili directed his observations to On the text of "The Life of St. John and St. Ephvime Mtatsmindelis" as a historical work, but these observations are also important from a philological-literary point of view. According to the scientist, he had oral and written sources, which he himself indicates. In modern research, we have the opportunity to verify the mentioned issues with other sources, which once again shows the scientific genius of Ivane Javakhishvili. In these works, Ivane Javakhishvili used the terminology used in theological and historical writings, namely "tskhoreva", "dignified citizenship", "a letter to be remembered", "length of time", "the coming of truth to science", "infallible" and others. Discussed by The issue of St. Giorgi Mtatsmindeli's hagiographic narrative style, which presents the author as a truthful writer. The report talks about the different opinions on each raised issue based on historical and philological studies at the modern stage. The work presents the merits of Ivane Javakhishvili St. Giorgi Mtatsmindeli's hagiographic works. In determining the sources, textological processing, narrative style, epochal value of the lives of Saints John and Ephvime in the context of the thought space of the Middle Ages, based on the achievements of modern philological-literary science.
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    ქართული უნივერსიტეტის პირველი საპატიო წევრი: ხელოვნების ისტორიკოსი ნიკოდიმ კონდაკოვი და საქართველო/ The First Honorary Member of the Georgian University: Art Historian Nikodim Kondakov and Georgia
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023-04-27) სიმონიშვილი/ Simonishvili, ნინო/ Nino
    According to the protocol of the Council of Professors of the Georgian University in Tiflis (March 15, 1918) signed by P. Melikishvili and Iv. Javakhishvili, the authors relaying on the scientific achievements of the famous Russian art historian Nikodim Kondakov in the study of art history and history of Georgian art in particular, proposed to elect Kondakov as an honorary member of the Georgian University. N. Kondakov was elected unanimously and a decision was made to send the diploma as soon as possible with the indication of this fact to the Russian scholar. However, despite N. Kondakov’s noted merits regarding Georgian art deserves special attention his election as the first honorary member of the newly founded Georgian University. It is interesting not only in the political context of the first Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918-1921), but also in the light of the reference letter of Iv. Javakhishvili issued in support of an invitation of a young Georgian scholar Giorgi Chubinashvili to the position of professor of art history at the university. In his letter (December. 1918) Javakhishvili especially emphasized Chubinashvili’s European education and therefore, his qualification for study Georgian art. It is well known that within the framework of the preparatory process to the establishment of the first national university, Iv. Javakhishvili paid special attention to attracting young Georgians who studied in different European universities to this process. Due to this fact, it is of special interest to analyze what led to the election of Russian scholar Kondakov to the first honorary member of the university. The paper will analyze the reasons and international context that led the Council of Professors to such a decision.
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    სად მოინათლა ევსტათი მცხეთელი: ივანე ჯავახიშვილისა და ადოლფ ფონ ჰარნაკის შეხედულება ევსტათი მცხეთელის ნათლობასთან დაკავშირებით/ Where was Eustathius of Mtskheta Baptized: The Opinion of Ivane Javakhishvilis and Adolf von Harnack Regarding the Baptism of Eustathius of Mtskheta
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023-04-27) პოპიაშვილი/ Popiashvili, ნინო/ Nino
    There are a number of key issues in "Martyr of Eustathius of Mtskheta" by an unknown author, about which there are differences of opinion in the scientific space. Among them is the question of when and where Eustathius of Mtskheta was baptized. The text shows that Eustathius is being baptized twice: once in Persia, once in Mtskheta. This contradiction became the source of different views of scientists. According to Ivane Javakhishvili and Adolf von Harnack, Eustathius of Mtskheta became a Christian in Gandzak, Persia, so that he would have been recognized not as a child of the Persian Church, but of the Church of Kartli, this edition of the text was changed and baptism in Kartli was added. According to Korneli Kekelidze, the double baptism mentioned in the work is not contradictory. Eustathius of Mtskheta converted to Christianity by faith, and formally became a Christian in Mtskheta. The double baptism of the proselyte hero called to "Martyr of Eustathius of Mtskheta" is important both from the point of view of the study of the work and the religious polemics in the work. As is known, the first exegetical teachings in Georgian literature are presented in "Martyr of Eustathius of Mtskheta". In the report, we will talk about the views of foreign author Ivane Javakhishvili and Adolf von Harnack regarding the place of baptism of the proselyte hero in "Martyr of Eustathius of Mtskheta".
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    რუსეთ-უკრაინის ომის შესაძლო გავლენა 2024 წლის აშშ-ის საპრეზიდენტო არჩევნებზე/ The Russo-Ukrainian War and Its Possible Impact on the 2024 United States Presidential Election
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023-04-27) პაპასქირი/ Papaskiri, თეიმურაზ/ Teimuraz
    The Russian war against Ukraine unified almost the full political spectrum of the United States. Nearly unanimous decisions of the U.S. Congress which made it possible to provide the both military and non-military support to Ukraine clearly confirm this. Only a handful of politicians expressed their scepticism regarding the support towards Ukraine. Mostly, those were the Republicans supporting Donald Trump, but sometimes the so-called “Progressives” among Democrats also joined them (albeit because of completely different reasons). Despite this, the prolongation of war may increase the number of Americans who will support the reducing or even stopping the aid to Ukraine. This is significant because of the U.S. Presidential Election, which will take place next year. As we already see, such viewpoints are quite pronounced in the pro-- Republican media. In this case, we have to single out Tucker Carlson from Fox News, whose weeknight Tucker Carlson Tonight is the most popular political show in the United States. Tucker Carlson regularly expresses his doubts regarding the Ukrainian achievements in the war and frequently spreads disinformation and the Russian propaganda about the hostilities. This is especially true regarding the leak of papers from the Pentagon. The significance of Tucker Carlson’s factor is increased by his open support to Donald Trump in the upcoming presidential election. Trump is not hiding his negative attitude towards Ukraine. Although, he does not (and will not) dare to express the open support to Russia, but stopping or even reducing the aid to Ukraine (which he evidently wishes) can be considered as choosing the aggressor’s side. Moreover, the similar statement (“While the U.S. has many vital national interests...becoming further entangled in a territorial dispute between Ukraine and Russia is not one of them”) was made by Ron DeSantis, Governor of Floridan, who is considered as the main rival of Donald Trump in Republican Primaries. Nevertheless, it should be mentioned that he was speaking on Tucker Carlson Tonight and the most conservative electorate was the primary target of his address. Thus, it seems this was a tactical step from DeSantis in the intra-party struggle, since he had never expressed pro-Russian sentiments and called Vladimir Putin a “war criminal” on the next day. At the same time, there is presidential candidate from the Democratic Party, who shares the anti-Ukrainian views. Robert Francis Kennedy Jr., who has officially announced his run for the presidency, repeated the disinformation from Tucker Carlson. He also made some other statements which showed his ignorance regarding the question. For example, Robert Kennedy Jr. declared that he will withdraw the American “troopsp from Russia’s borders,” and this “would entice Russia to withdraw its troops from Ukraine.” Of course, this statement is so naïve that it is not possible to analyse it seriously. Nevertheless, since President Biden’s second term is not appealing to the part of the Democratic electorate, Kennedy can enjoy some support (unless other candidates appear) among the voters during the Democratic Primaries. (At this moment his popularity is at 14% among the Democrats.) In conclusion, we have to say that Donald Trump remains as the most significant threat to the interests of Ukraine (and the civilized world) and his possible choosing as the presidential candidate from the Republican Party can be a result of the anti- Ukrainian and pro-Russian sentiments among the ultra-conservative voters. Nevertheless, there is a hope that Ukraine will either win the war or achieve the decisive victories prior to November of 2024 and the Ukrainian issue will have no impact on the American voters.
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    ლეონიდ არონზონის პოეზიის ახალი ქართული თარგმანები/ New Georgian Translations of Leonid Aronzon's Poetry
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023-04-27) ნავროზაშვილი/ Navrozashvili, ეკატერინე/ Ekaterine; გონჯილაშვილი/ Gonjilashvili, ნანა/ Nana
    Leonid Aronzon, as noted by literary critics, was a unique phenomenon in the Russian literature of the 60s and 70s. He consciously kept his distance from any literary associations or groups. In the 80s, and later in the post-Soviet era, his poems and several noteworthy critics of his work were published. Yet, not much is known about Leonid Aronzon's life and poetic legacy. Biographical dates are rarely reflected in Leonid Aronzon's poems. However, a large place is occupied by landscapes that change according to the time of day, month and year. The poet presents the familiar landscapes as “being somewhere else”, looking for a new world with hope and creating “exact diaries of his soul”. Newly discovered worlds come to life and resonate in Aronzon's thoughts and poems. It can be said that the works of Leonid Aronzon were, in fact, unknown to Georgian readers. Translations of his poetry and prose were published a few years ago. Tengiz (Aleko) Kvatchadze translated Aronzon's stories, while Rusudan Chanturishvili and Lulu Dadiani translated some poems. Translations by Rusudan Chanturishvili were published in the journals “Pirveli Skhivi”, “Tsiskari~ and Lulu Dadiani’s translations were published in the journal "Afra". Our report analyzes three poems by Leonid Aronzon («О, как осення осень»…, «Есть светлый полдень и раздолье льда…», «Зеркала») translated from Russian by Chanturishvili. Based on the analysis of the selected poems before translating, as well as the comparison of the originals and translations, it is shown how the translator was able to express Leonid Aronzon's poetic world in the Georgian language.
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    რუსეთის პოლიტიკა კავკასიაში XX საუკუნის 90-ან წლებში/ Russian policy in the Caucasus in the 90s of the XX century
    (ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა, 2023-04-27) მჭედლიძე/ Mchedlidze, მამუკა/ Mamuka
    As a result of the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia lost its influence on the geopolitical space of Eurasia, which it had controlled since the 16th century. In the Caucasus, Russia lost the most important strategic region – Transcaucasia, which was under its rule for almost two hundred years. Russia's influence in the regions of the Black and Caspian Seas has significantly decreased. Russia has lost significant hydrocarbon resources. Control of global strategic communications – the world's shortest transport corridor between Europe and Asia – was also lost. In the form of Transcaucasia, Russia has lost one of the pillars of its influence on the processes of the Middle East. All this has significantly weakened Russia's influence in the North Caucasus, which is closely connected with Transcaucasia by cultural and historical ties. Also in the North Caucasus the tendencies of independence and separation from Russia were revealed with full force. These events manifested themselves already in the years of "perestroika", and after the collapse of the Soviet Union, they took the form of a tendency to leave Russia and form separate state entities. Thus, the Russian political elite in the Caucasus needed to solve three main tasks: – Keeping the North Caucasus as part of Russia – Restoration of geopolitical influence in Transcaucasia – Formation of a geopolitical picture in the Middle East based on the Caucasus The unprofessionalism and total corruption of the Yeltsin regime practically precluded balanced and reasonable policy planning and execution. In fact, during the entire period of his rule, Yeltsin's regime failed to formulate a conceptually understood and time-bound foreign policy doctrine, as a result of which his efforts were reduced to restraining the ongoing processes in the Caucasus by physical force. Yeltsin's regime was unable to understand the content of these events and control their progress. Consequently, Yeltsin's government chose the easiest and at the same time the most unsuccessful way – the use of military force. As a result, the crisis of Russian politics became chronic and led to a military conflict in Chechnya. This conflict turned into a full-scale local war that put Russia on the verge of territorial disintegration. Yeltsin's regime acted similarly in Transcaucasia. Yeltsin's government countered the clearly defined European orientation of Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan with economic, political and military efforts. Special attention was paid to the separatism of individual regions included in these republics. As a result, political tensions in Nagorno-Karabakh, Abkhazia and Tskhinvali escalated to a full-scale military conflict, resulting in significant human casualties and territorial losses. The foreign policy of Yeltsin's government was significantly influenced by the internal destructive processes taking place in Russia itself, which in the second half of the 1990s turned into a permanent and comprehensive crisis. These events shook the foundations of Russian statehood. However, even in such unstable conditions, the rigid foreign policy of the Yeltsin regime towards the Caucasus did not change, and no steps were taken to reach a mutually acceptable compromise. The main role in these processes was played by the mentality of both Yeltsin's closest entourage and the Russian political elite in general, which a priori excluded the concept of Transcaucasian independence and considered it as a temporarily lost Russian region. Thus, Russia's foreign policy in the Caucasus in the 1990s confirmed the permanent nature of the imperial state tradition, which remains unchanged despite changes in social formation, state structure, and historical era.