სამკარის ციხე

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Date
2017
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Abstract
Samkari Fortress is situated in Narman ilçe of Erzurum Vilayet (Republic of Turkey). The name of contemporary village is Samikale (Geo. “sami” means three; Turk. “kale” denotes fortress). Old name of Samikale attested in historical sources is the Georgian term “Samkari” (Samikari). “Samkari/Samikari” lit. means three (sami) gate (kari); term “kari” (gate, entrance) in this case indicates the gateway that locks three roads, as three roads are merging each other at this place. Hence the old name of the village as well as the fortress that is attested by numerous historical sources is Samkari. Tao (south-western part of historical Georgia, now in Republic of Turkey) is divided in two parts: Amiertao and Imiertao. Samkari was the part of Imiertao and was closely linked with Mamirvan, they both are situated in Oltisistskali gorge (Oltu Brook Valley, a tributary of Çoruh River). This gorge was the Georgian frontier with southern neighbors. This valley as well as the fortresses that are located there played important role in the defense of Oltisi (Oltu), political center of Imiertao. Thus this part of Tao became significant for the defense of city of Oltisi from the 10th century. Samkari Fortress was probably constructed in the second half of the 13th century, or in the 14th century. Accounts of Abū-Bakr Ṭihrānī (1st half of 15th c.-1480s) lead us to this conclusion. Samkari Fortress was considered to be inaccessible from Muslim rulers. Abū-Bakr Ṭihrānī mentions Timur the Lame’s incursion and his failure to capture Samkari Fortress. The date is not mentioned, but most probably the attempt from Chagatai troops to conquer the fortress took place in 1402. The next invasion was led by Qara Qoyunlu ruler Iskander. We have assumed 1430-1431 as the possible date for this invasion when Iskander had tried to capture Samkari, but again, that attempt proved to be failure. Once again, according to the same author, another Turkomans, Aq Quyunlu leader Uzun Hassan and his army besieged Samkari Fortress in 1458 and now Muslims managed to seize it. They also captured five other fortresses in Meskheti, most probably, in Oltisisthkali gorge and in adjacent areas. The Georgians recaptured all conquered territories of Aq Quyunlu in 1478, when Uzun Hassan died. Samkari Fortress was secured from Muslim invasions before the appearance of Ottomans. Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent in 1548-1549 sent his army against Samtskhe-Saatabago and the Ottomans seized Samkari as well as the other strongholds of Meskheti. After that Samkari was united in Mamirvan nahiye of Oltisi (Oltu) sanjak. Later this sanjak became part of Akhaltsikhe Vilayet (also known as Childir Eyalet). Fortress lost its importance and only village Samkari appears in Ottoman defters (Census Books).
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https://geohistory.humanities.tsu.ge/ge/procedings/83-shromebi/169-shromebi-12.html
Keywords
სამკარი, აღ-ყოინყლუ, სამცხე
Citation
ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის საქართველოს ისტორიის ინსტიტუტის შრომები, XII, თბილისი, 2017, გვ. 172-212 / Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Institute of Georgian History Proceedings, XII, Tbilisi, 2017, pp. 172-212
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