იალცუნესგა ‒ დალის (კოდორის) ხეობის „შუამდინარეთი“

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Date
2022
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უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა
Abstract
The village Ialtsunesga is located in the beginning of Dali (Kodori) Gorge, nearby Klukhor Pass, between Saknara and Gvandrala the tributaries to the river Kodori. Having taken into account the phonetic changes, Ialtsunesga in Svanian language literally means “between two rivers”, so it might be said that the village Ialtsunesga happens to be the “Mesopotamia” of Dali (Kodori) Gorge. Discourse of Kodori residents is an interesting segment of Svan and generally Georgian dialectological field; From 80s of last century to present we work with the residents of Dali Gorge for the purpose of collection and systematization of onomastic and ethnolinguistic materials. Unfortunately, nowadays Ialtsunesga, one of the oldest Georgian villages, is totally uninhabited and no Georgian (Svan) words have been heard about it since August, 2008, as well as about the whole Kodori Gorge, which has never been separated from Georgia during any period of the history of the country. Dali Gorge is a historical part of the western Georgia, Abkhazia. In the antique period it was called Mivsianeti or Misimianeti, in the middle ages - Dali Gorge, in XIX century – Tsebelda Dali Sabokaulo (the area controlled by a certain police department), in the Soviet period it was called Abkhazian Svaneti, and in XXI century – Upper Abkhazia. Such a variety of the names speaks for itself, of the importance and special role of this gorge in the history of Georgia. After well-known facts taken place in 2008, residents from Kodori live under refugee status in various regions of Georgia – Imereti, Kvemo Kartli, Svaneti, also Russian Federation and Europe… The gorge enjoys the most advantageous geographical location - Klukhori, Naharvi, Marukhi - Dali Gorge is the shortest way that connects the seaside region of the western Georgia with the North Caucasus. That explains special importance and strategic functions assigned to this territory in every historical epoch. Toponymy of Dali’s Gorge is characterized by lingual diversity and absolutely different chronology of designation. Many famous researchers or kartvelologists got interested in Svan toponymy. Significant conclusions are also made as a result of study and research: analysis of toponymical material of Svaneti and its adjacent territories is clearly stated by the references of ancient Greek historian Strabo. In the toponymy of Racha-Lechkhumi, Upper Svaneti and mountainous Samegrelo the sign of Svan language is obviously found, meaning that once this territory was inhabited by Svans. Similar track is also found on the land of northern Caucasus. It is stated by that toponyms: Khumar (comp.Tskhumari), Ushkalan (comp.Ushkul) and others… (Chumburidze et al, 2007). Microtoponymy of Dali Gorge is characterized by the abundance of environment describing terms. The Geographical phenomena and lexemes, such as – ravine, gorge, rock, the places where there used to be towers there, lake, mountain, brook, pass, hill, hillock, knoll, grassland, tower, cliff, slope, risen river, landslip, waterfall, mountain top… Including morphemoids – down, downwards, up, upward, eastern-western... Out of toponyms of Dali Gorge in the “Census of Kingdom of Georgia” written by Vakhushti Bagrationi in the 18th century we find ”Kodori” as hydronym… Svan Discourse of Dali Gorge is famous with its interference. It is very interesting segment of Georgian dialectological field. This publication gives an overview and structural-semantic analysis of the rich onomastic material including toponyms, names, surnames... of this specific village of Abkhazia. Kodori Gorge’s materials are presented in the publication. Also, Svan’s hydrographic vocabulary and terminology are explored here. Generally, in Svan language the formation of the hydrographic vocabulary and terminology was caused by the development of the inner nature of the language, dialectical varieties, word-borrowings and phonetical modification. From the point of semantic aspect, several subgroups can be identified within Svan toponymy, namely, the toponyms, metonyms and hydronyms related to the hunting activities, geographical names conditioned by landscapes and those referring to the origin and meaning of the names of religion activities. This paper is also an attempt to specify the etymology of several private names and to reveal extra linguistic factors along with linguistic factors. The cultural anthropology of the Dali Gorge covers and integrates thematically key and Kartvelologically topical themes such as the Bronze Age and Hellenistic archaeological sites; history of Kodori Gorge; early medieval fortresses, sites of former churches, houses for prayers and Christian monuments; onomastics (toponymy, anthroponymy, theonymy, hydronymy, zoonymy) of Dali Gorge; Kodorian Svan speech (interference picture, ethnolinguistic aspects) ... Consequently, interest in the Kodori Gorge, or Dali country (as the travelers of early periods call it!) is multifaceted. Study of onomastic, folk and linguistic materials of Dali Gorge in general Georgian dialectological field under ethnolinguistic, interferential, linguoculturological aspects enables us to have made quite interesting conclusions.
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Keywords
დალის (კოდორის) ხეობა, სვანური, ონომასტიკა, სოფელი იალცუნესგა, ტოპონიმია, Dali (Kodori) Gorge, Svan, Onomastics, Village Ialtsunesga, Toponymy
Citation
ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის ქართული ენის ინსტიტუტი. სამეცნიერო სესია მიძღვნილი პროფესორ ფარნაოზ ერთელიშვილის ხსოვნისადმი, მასალები, თბილისი, 2022, გვ. 21-28 / Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Institute of the Georgian Language. Scientific Session Dedicated to the Memory of Professor Pharnaoz Ertelishvili, Proceedings, Tbilisi, 2022, pp. 21-28