დანტე UNA ITALIA-სა და უნივერსალური მსოფლიო მონარქიის ფუძემდებელი „DE MONARCHIA’’-ს მიხედვით

Abstract
In XIII-XIV Centuries political polycentrism and the diversity of state systems arose the problem of regional absolutism in Italy, to which was added the papacy with the ambition of creating a world theocratic monarchy. A fierce battle for superiority between the divine emperors and popes created two acutely confronting parties – Guelphs and Ghibellines. The struggle between these parties embraced the whole Italy. Italy’s complex political circumstances and polycentrism had a significant impact on the development of the Renaissance thought. Political treatises, which could find the ways for deliverance, were being created. Dante, Petrarca, Boccaccio, Machiavelli and others were actively involved in political peripeteias. They dreamed of the unified Italy, but they all saw the state arrangement variously. There is a profound analysis regarding the public life of that time in the treatise “De Monarchia”, based on the political-philosophical worldview of Dante Allegheri – the coryphaeus of Italian thought. According to some researchers (Ritchie, Cingarelli, Erkol), the work must have been written for protecting Ghibellines at the court of Can Grade Della Scalla during Dante’s stay in Verona in 1312-1313. A famous researcher of Dante, Michelle Barbie, based on Boccaccio, claims that Dante wrote this treatise during the expedition of Heinrich VII, who intended to restore the divine empire of Rome within its ancient borders. Dante saw in him the implementer of universal monarchy idea and Una Italia, so his sent him a welcome letter. In “De Monarchia” three main issues are stated: 1. The necessity of World Monarchy; 2. The Peculiarity of Roman People; 3.The issue of two swords. While working on treatise Dante relied on the views of Aristotle, Cicero, Euclid, Engelbert and Averroes on common world monarchy and opposed the theory of Blessed Augustine and Thomas Aquinas about the primacy of ecclesiastical authority. The Republic of Florence, in the governing of which Dante took part, showed him the negative aspects of democracy. Tyranny, oligarchy, democracy passed in front of him, that is why Dante considered the creation of world empire as the most acceptable form of power. In The “Monarchy”, Dante preached a real political revolution against the papal secular power, rejected “The Donation of Constantine” and demanded the independence of the secular government from the church. The treatise provoked outrage among the supporters of theocracy, but became acceptable and intimate for revivalist thinkers. Marcillo Ficino translated “Monarchy” into Italian to introduce his theories to a wide range of humanists. In 1559 the book was published not in Italy but in Basel. In 1564 the Pope included it on the “Index of Forbidden Books”. Thus, Dante’s political treatise was ahead of its time. His “De Monarchia” is the first treatise on peace and the state, which comprehended Europe’s political essence and spoke of humanity. Dante conceived the world monarchy as a united Italy which would lead other peoples and its monarch would be the successor of the Ancient Caesars. Nonetheless, it should be mentioned that monarchy was not national for Dante. In his view, the German emperor, Heinrich VII stood at the head of the world empire, as he could hardly think of any other power capable of uniting Italy. Dante considered that Italy and not Germany was the central pillar of World Empire. Dante is the author of the idea of Una Italia – United Italy, which was implemented by Garibaldi in 1870. Madzini wrote: “L Italia se incarnate in Dante” – Italy is embodied in Dante.
Description
დანტე ალიგიერის გარდაცვალებიდან 700 წლისთავისადმი მიძღვნილი საერთაშორისო სამეცნიერო კონფერენცია/ International Scientific Conference Dedicated to the 700th Anniversary of the Death of Dante Alighieri
Keywords
დანტე, მსოფლიო მონარქია, ფლორენცია, გერმანია, პოლიცენტრიზმი, რენესანსი, Dante, world monarchy, Florence, Germany, polycentrism, renaissance
Citation
„დანტეს შემოქმედება, როგორც მსოფლიო კულტურული მემკვიდრეობის საგანძური“, თეზისები, 2021, გვ.: 78-83/ “Dante’s Creative Work as the Treasure of the World Cultural Heritage”, Abstracts, 2021, p.: 78-83