ონომასტიკური მასალა ქართველურ ენათა ანდაზებში: მარკირება და განზოგადება

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Date
2022
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უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა
Abstract
Analysis of the vocabulary of proverbs and identification of the existing thematic fields is extremely important, because the lexical fund of paremic units is very close to everyday speech (Lezhava, 1959). Due to the social nature of proverbs, the form and content of a concrete word may point to the place of origin and/or spreading of the proverb. Analysis of the empirical material has proved that even within the related Kartvelian languages there may be thematically diverse paremic units, marked by the influence of local peculiarities (Jgharkava, 2020). In this regard, special focus should be made on the onomastic material represented in proverbs. • Anthroponyms Megrelian material: (1) axalaiaš osurepi ṗaṭaraiaš osureps mišaragadandesia. (Sherozia & Memishishi, 1994, p. 16). “The Akhalaias’ wives mix with the Pataraias’ wives“. The given proverb says that wives of the Akhalaia family tried to establish close relationships with the wives of the Pataraia family. The proverb implies the supremacy of the Pataraia family over the Akhalaias. Thus, the content of the proverb was, from the very start, defined (marked) by the historically proved social supremacy of certain families. Sue to its very nature, a proverb is always inclined to generalization. The above-mentioned paremic unit is nowadays quite general in its content, whereas the social status of certain families is of secondary importance (this can be proved by Megrelian proverbs of the same meaning, containing different anthroponyms. See Sherozia & Memishishi, 1994, p. 16). Generalization of such marked proverbs can be proved by other examples as well: (2a) soni čikaxe, so mišaxe. “Fancy where Chikava’s daughter has happened to be“ (Sherozia & Memishishi, 1994, p. 124); (2b) soni ǯikaxe, so mišaxe. “Fancy where Jikia’s daughter has happened to be“ (Folk Speech. II, 1991, p. 526); (2c) soni mikaxe, so dišaxe.“Fancy where Mikava’s daughter has happened to be“ (field materials). The concrete referents found in the above-mentioned proverbs become generalized with time. The examples (2a), (2b) and (2c) presented above are also interesting from another viewpoint. In particular, the additional basis of their marking is the rhythmic nature of proverbs i.e. the rhyming of the constituent words (cf. čikaxe – mišaxe, ǯikaxe – mišaxe, mikaxe – dišaxe). The empirical material has yielded another important topic for analysis, namely, the proverbs based on toponyms, the local marking of which is related to geographical names. In this case, generalization can be proved by the diversity of toponyms (cf. toponyms of Eastern and Western Georgia, as well as the toponyms currently on the Turkish territory mentioned in the Laz proverbs) as well as the wisdom-advice provided in the proverbs. • Toponyms Megrelian material: (3) xorgas koči golaxes do xetas gurk murtua. “The man who was beaten in Khorga, got angry in Kheta“ (Sherozia & Memishishi, 1994, p. 185). Cf. a Georgian proverb: erti ḳaci gorši galaxes da guli cxinvalši mouvidao (A man was beaten in Gori and got angry in Tskhinvali” (Jorjaneli, 2003, p. 81). Laz material: (4) ṗolis ǯumori dvaberenan do nčxalas xarǯi iḳvanṭerenan. “Someone spilled vinegar in Istanbul and demanded recuperation of damage in Chkhala“ (Sherozia & Memishishi, 1994, p. 249). Svan material: (5) jerûale qenis eser espešûda I gadranärs ḳäcxte xäc̣rala. “A man fell down in the Kheni gorge and cursed the Gadrani family all the way until he reached Katskhi village“ (Davitiani, 1973, p. 123). Thus, in the Kartvelian proverbs, the local peculiarities are often marked based on the onomastic material, although proverbs are inclined to generalization and provide universal wisdom which is useful in every place and understood by everyone.
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ლინგვისტიკა, ქართველური ენები, პარემიოლოგია, ანდაზა, ონომასტიკა, Linguistics, Kartvelian languages, paremiology, proverb, onomastics
Citation
ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის ქართული ენის ინსტიტუტი. სამეცნიერო სესია მიძღვნილი პროფესორ ფარნაოზ ერთელიშვილის ხსოვნისადმი, მასალები, თბილისი, 2022, გვ. 37-42 / Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Institute of the Georgian Language. Scientific Session Dedicated to the Memory of Professor Pharnaoz Ertelishvili, Proceedings, Tbilisi, 2022, pp. 37-42