"ტრანსკავკასიური" გზის შესახებ

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2019
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Abstract
“Aristobulus declares that the Oxus is the largest of the rivers he has seen in Asia, except those in India. And Patrocles, as well as Aristobulus and Eratosthenes, say that it is navigable and that large quantities of Indian wares are brought down on it to the Hyrcanian Sea, and thence on that sea are transported to Albania and brought down on the Cyrus River and through the region that comes next after it to the Euxine” (Strabo. XI. 7. 3). All the authors listed above, including Strabo, use the present tense meaning that “Transcaucasian” transit of the Indian goods (along the rivers Indus – Bactra (Balkh) – Oxus (Amu-Daria) – Hyrcanian (Caspian) Sea – Cyrus (Mtkvari) – Phasis (Kvirila and Rioni) to the city of Phasis (Poti) in Colchis) worked hard in the 3rd c. B.C., first half of the 2nd c. B.C., and in 19/20 A.D. when Strabo “published” his work. “Varro says also that during this expedition of Pompejus it was known that it is but seven days journey from India to the Bactrians, Bactra River, which runs into the Oxus; and that the merchandise of India, transported by the Caspian Sea, and so to the river Cyrus, may be brought in not more than five days by land as far as to Phasis in Pontus” (Plin. NH. VI. 52). It is clear enough that Varro speaks about a possibility of “Transcaucasian” transit by 65 B.C., it had been already broken. And Pliny has nothing to add. Again, there is no transit in the 70s of the 1st c. A.D. So, the Seleucids gained a direct access to the cheap spice market as far back as in the beginning of the 3rd c. B.C. Greeks living in Syria organized spice supply of Europe via “Transcaucasian” river-route thus saving much money while transportation of the Indian goods. They started to gain handsome profit. Then it had to be shared with the allies, Greeks from Bactria. Colchian coins of the 3rd c. B.C. found the Central Asia, Bactrian coins of the 2nd c. B.C. found in Eastern Georgia, and presence of the Bactrians in Colchis attest this trade. Becoming stronger, the Arsacids cut this trade by organizing Caspian fleet. From that day on only their merchants could have a direct access to the spices transported towards Europe. The Seleucids had to do nothing but to pay huge sum for the goods brought from the left bank of the Euphrates. Romans, already governing Syria, had to do the same. So, Transiranian transit became the most important one, only sometimes being interrupted by the same Romans, humiliating the Parthians and with the help of the Kushans organizing silk and spice supply of Europe via “Transcaucasian” trade route.
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https://geohistory.humanities.tsu.ge/ge/procedings/83-shromebi/174-shromebi-15.html
Keywords
სავაჭრო გზები, საქართველო, სომხეთი, აზერბაიჯანი, ტრანსკავკასია
Citation
ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის საქართველოს ისტორიის ინსტიტუტის შრომები, XV, თბილისი, 2019, გვ. 9-20 / Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Institute of Georgian History Proceedings, XV, Tbilisi, 2019 pp. 9-20
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