მასალები XVIII საუკუნის აღმოსავლეთ საქართველოს ეკონომიკური ისტორიისათვის

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Date
2016
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Abstract
In this article specific issue of the economic history of East Georgia is discussed, namely, peasant family farming condition. The historical sources are numerous for the study of history of the late feudal epoch of Georgia. From many different types of documents precise information concerning average size of peasant farming could be absorbed. Also, precise accounts concerning the prices of the main commodity products are found in historical sources, based on these it is possible to calculate yearly revenue of peasants from harvest in monetary units. The social condition of peasants was not equal – peasant without land tenure were called “bogano”, there were peasants with small amount of land tenure, also with average amount of land tenure and more wealthier peasants. Despite the differentiation it is quite possible to calculate the average size of land tenure they used and the net worth of their gross product. According to fiscal census of 1804 and other historical data it is attested that peasants with average revenue, which were the majority, held approx. 12-15 daily land tenure (one daily land tenure was equal to 0.5 ha.). From this amount of land tenure it was possible to cultivat max. 6-7.5 daily land tenure every year. Due to the limited technical conditions and for obtaining the maximum amount of harvest the land breaking was very important. Small piece of land was used for the vegetables, fruits and other cultures while 5-6 daily lands were used to seed wheat and barley. Each family could harvest 100-120 codi (one codi is equal to 30-36 kg.) of crops. Market price for those commodities was 58-70 minaltuni. Peasant families with average revenue had their own vineyards and, also, cow, ships, chickens rarely oxen, horses etc. Average value of yearly produced product was more than 100 minaltuni. The major part of generated product was intended for taxes and personal use and small amount was sold in market. Revenue obtained from trading was used to cover the taxes again.
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https://geohistory.humanities.tsu.ge/ge/procedings/83-shromebi/166-shromebi-11.html
Keywords
ეკონომიკური ისტორია, ფეოდალიზმი, გლეხები
Citation
ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის საქართველოს ისტორიის ინსტიტუტის შრომები, XI, თბილისი, 2016, გვ. 155-166 / Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Institute of Georgian History Proceedings, XI, Tbilisi, 2016, pp. 155-166
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