სინონიმურ წყვილთა ფუნქციურ-სემანტიკური ნიშანდებისათვის ქართულში (გარჯა, ღვაწლი)

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2022
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Abstract
The group of synonymous pairs existing on the basis of certain semantical-typical peculiarities can be clearly seen in rich synonymy of the Georgian Language, for example: dzala "might" and ghone "forcee"; tsodva "sin" and brali "fault"; nichi "talent" and madli "gift"; madli "gift" and tskaloba "grace"; neba "will" and survili "wish"; amkhanagi "comrade" and megobari "friend" etc. The differentiating historical functional marking draws special attention, namely, the historically remarkable unifying process of such differentiating synonymous pairs as visble-invisible, corporeal-mental, real world-heavens  which is clearly seen from the pieces of Georgian classical and religious literature. On the basis of the principle of unity of the faith and knowledge (Ghlonti, 2017), it becomes possible to explain definitely the linguistic choice out of the Georgian synonymous pair garja "toiling" and ghuatsli "contributing through restless work" – which represents the main question of the represented paper, and besides that, we will try to discuss the original functional semantics as well as the pre-conditions of so-called synonymities of the given pair. II. In Georgian the word garja "diligence; working; doing hard work" (EDGL, 1950-1964)  belongs to the lexical-semantical nest of the words derived by the some root morphemes, namely -sj-/-shj-/-rch/- rj- (< *-saj-), implies about a hundred of the lexical units, comp.: old gan-sj-a, gan-shj-a, gan-rch-a "the court of honour"; old sj-uli, shjuli, rch-uli, rj-uli – means "the rule, punishment, doctrine"; samsjavro – "the code, the court" (Orbeliani, 1991-1993; Chubinashvili, 1984; Chubinashvili, 1961); sasjulo  "according the existing code, the rules - means a book of the existing ancient code of rules" (Orbeliani, 1991- 1993); daghrjulavs – "decision-making on the „doctrine basis" (Chincharauli, 2005), etc. In the semantic field of the word garja most actively used is a semanteme  "deliberate physical work", comp.: gairjeba (from the action gaisarja) in meaning of "work, try, disturb itself to do something"; the same as jafa ( Arab.), meaning in Georgian "hard work" (EDGL, 1950-1964), etc. Though, according the above named semantic data concerning the word garja, it can be supposed that this word-notion firstly was used in the sense of religious belief - which can be confirmed by the noteworthy lexicographic entries of some Georgian dictionaries concerning the word garja, for example, let us consider some explanations: garja "restless work"; "dedicated work"; garjili "one who has done much work", garjiloba "having done the work" (Orbeliani, 1991- 1993; Chubinashvili, 1984; Chubinashvili, 1961), etc. III. In Georgian, the synonymous pair for garja "toiling" is ghvatsli "merit" ( old ghutsa, ghutsola, ghuatsli) with the following polysemic: „hard labor, restless work, care, supervision; struggle, overcoming difficulty, hardness, hard living, aspiration, trying; sorrow“ (Abuladze, 1973; Sarjveladze, 2001; Imnaishvili, 1986); also, "work in the social life field, in favor of the country, merit", comp.: samsakhuri "care about country, work for its benefit" (EDGL, 1950-1964). See also the explanation of old ghuatsli as "working for well being of the country, serving the country" (EDGL, 1950-1964); comp.: ghuatsli "hard work such as in struggle for virtue" and sarjulo, sashjulo  "matter of religious belief" and: "doing useful activitiesl; take care, merit"; ghuatsli "working hard, resless, doing job" (Orbeliani, 1993); comp.: ghvatslit mdzle – "who is a winner of the battle" (Chubinashvili, 1984; Chubinashvili, 1961). IV. Resulting from the lexical-semantic analysis, given in the represented paper (garja "toiling, hard work" and ghvatsli – "toiling, contributing through the restless work"), we represent to you the following conclusion: The initial semantics function of the Georgian synonymous pair of word-notions is preserved till nowadays through the semantics of the Georgian word-notion ghvatsli – "toiling through hard work" ( old ghutsa, ghutsola, ghuatsli) which is clear from the definition such as: "Everyday work which is dedicated to saving the own soul and is showing loyalty and faith dedicated with great merci to Christ, overcoming the difficulties, poverty, hard times and struggle which all together means fulfilling the doctrine of Christ with dignity".This conditioned the fact that we name all our famous compatriots are named as "meritorious" (in ghvatslmosili), as by their great deeds they contributed to development and wellbeing to their country, with joy they resisted much difficulties on their way in benefit of the future of the country. As for the word garja, its lexical-semantic functioning nowadays attracts our attention. We mean namely the fact that there is no special notional designation for this word and it is used only as a lexeme in meaning of "hard work". On the other hand, the root-morpheme -rj- ( old gan-rj-a) clearly shows the same shared semantics as it really represents itself as the member of the synonymous pair garja and ghvatsli as "a representative" of the lexical-semantic nest of the root "saj" which in its turn represents a bearer of the semantics of the words rjuli, tsesi ("meaning: religion, law, religious doctrine"). Though, from this point of view, it is important to consider also the term from the Georgian church terminology, representing member of the synonymous pair, namely the Georgian terms: morchili denoting one "who passes the preparation period for becoming a blessed" and msaxuri "church servant", as a monk or as a priest (Ghlonti, 2005).
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სემანტიკა, სინონიმიკა, ლექსიკოლოგია, semantics, synonymy, lexicology
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სამეცნიერო სესია, მიძღვნილი აკადემიკოს ვარლამ თოფურიას ხსოვნისადმი, მასალები, თბილისი, 08.01.2022, გვ. 31-39 /Scientific Session Dedicated to the Memory of Academician Varlam Topuria, Proceedings, Tbilisi, 08.01.2022, pp. 31-39