ლექსიკური ასპექტი სპეციალობის ენის სწავლების პროცესში. THE LEXICAL ASPECT OF THE SPECIALTY LANGUAGE TEACHING PROCESS

Abstract
In the absences of a language environment teaching the language of the specialty comes to the fore in teaching Russian as a foreign language in universities, first of all, the formation of the ability to understand the read special text and extract information from it. It does not follow from the foregoing that it is necessary to completely abandon the development of speaking, listening and writing skills, but the main task is to teach students to independently read texts in their specialty (with and without a dictionary). The material for studying at the university should be the scientific style of speech in com bi nation with the newspaper-journalistic and formal-business style. The dominant or subordinate position of a particular style is determined by the specialty of students: in technical universities, the main one is the scientific style of speech, in the classroom with law students, the main thing is to identify the specific properties of the formal-business style and those features of the scientific style of speech that are characteristic of the language of jurisprudence. Legal texts combine elements of scientific and formal-business speech, representing an ordered alternation of different ways of presentation. The initial course of teaching the language of the specialty of lawyers (as well as students of any other specialty) is the assimilation of terms and terminological phrases, as well as cliché sentences, therefore, it is natural to use in the learning process small adapted texts, simplified in terms of syntax, but retaining most of the terms. Special texts of a standardized form (for example, articles of the criminal and civil codes) can be presented to students in an unadapted form (at the same time in Russian and native languages). Such texts are not exact translations of each other, but they have the same structure and lexical match. This makes it possible to focus students’ attention on the means of expressing adequate thoughts in Russian and their native languages and use them as material for translating from Russian into their native language and vice versa. When presenting texts at the initial stage of training, it is desirable to take into account the level of knowledge of students in the specialty: if the content of the text is familiar to students, the teacher has the opportunity to focus their attention on the form of expression of familiar content. At the advanced stage of teaching, original texts or with minimal adaptation are presented, and on their material students get acquainted with the constructions of scientific and official business styles, frequent in the language of jurisprudence, and the means of connecting between sentences and paragraphs. The quality of text comprehension is checked through various control methods: checking understanding of phrases, short answers to questions (“yes” or “no”) expressing agreement or disagreement with the given provisions, find answers to questions in the text to find specific information, select the correct option from several possible answers, correlating terms with their definitions, presenting the content of the text in the form of diagrams, translating the text or part of it, etc. As an additional material, even with insufficient preparation of students, it is advisable to use problematic texts that provide ample opportunities for speech and are close in content and language to texts in the specialty, e.g.: “Euthanasia – Crime or Mercy”, “Marriage Contract – Pros and Cons”, “Adoption secrecy”. Work on terms is also ongoing at this stage. This work is of different types:  expanding the lexical compatibility of an already known term and establishing the limits of its distribution (вынести, огласить, опротестовать, обжаловать, отменить ПРИГОВОР; ПРИГОВОР об ви нительный, оправдательный; ПРИГОВОР окончательный, обжалованию не подлежит; ПРИГОВОР вступил в законную силу);  work on the compatibility of verbs, frequent in the language of jurisprudence, with the subsequent transformation of verb phrases into nominal ones (возложить/возлагать вину, обязанность – возложение вины, обязанности);  work on verb-nominal phrases with desemantized verbs (принести протест, вступить в наследство);  work on the differentiation of the meanings of single-root words with different suffixes and prefixes in order to prevent errors in their compatibility (злое лицо – злостное хулиганство, смертный приговор – смертельный удар);  work on expanding the circle of lexemes with already known derivational elements and introducing the concept of a derivation model (следователь,исполнитель, даритель);  work on establishing systemic links between new terminological phrases and those already learned (заключить договор – расторгнуть договор, дать показания – отказа¬ться от дачи показаний).
Description
Keywords
სპეციალობის ენა, სამეცნიერო სტილი, ტერმინი, კონტროლი, ტერმინოლოგიური შესიტყვება, სემანტიზაცია, ადაპტაცია, ლექსიკური თავსებადობა, specialty language, scientific style, term, control, terminological combination, semantization, adaptation, lexical compatibility
Citation
ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტი ჰუმანიტარულ მეცნიერებათა ფაკულტეტი, აკადემიკოს მარიამ ლორთქიფანიძის დაბადებიდან 100 წლის იუბილესადმი მიძღვნილი XVI საფაკულტეტო სამეცნიერო კონფერენცია, თეზისები, თბილისი, 2022, გვ.: 3-10 / Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Faculty of Humanities, 16th FACULTY SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE IN HONOUR OF THE 100th ANNIVERSARY OF THE BIRTH OF MARIAM LORTKIPANIDZE, Abstracts, Tbilisi, 2022, pp.: 3-10