ებრაული იდენტობის სეკულარიზაციის მექანიზმები საბჭოთა ებრაული იდენტობის ჩამოყალიბებისათვის 1920-1930-იან წლებში/ Mechanisms of Secularization of Jewish Identity for the Formation of Soviet Jewish Identity in the 1920s-1930s

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Date
2023-04-27
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ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა
Abstract
In 1921, after the establishment of Soviet rule in Georgia, a new political and social system based on Marxist-Leninist ideology began to be established in the country. The 1920s-1930s were marked by contradictory nationality and economic policies. One of the goals of the Soviet nationality experiment was to develop and implement a new concept of identity of the Soviet peoples, including the Jews. Before Sovietization, Georgian Jewish identity was closely linked to religion; the Jewish communal life was concentrated around the synagogue. As for economic activity and legal status, the vast majority of Jews were involved in trade; in 1918-1921, their full-fledged civil rights were ensured by the legislation of the Democratic Republic of Georgia. After Sovietization, a fundamentally different model of Jewish identity was developed. More than 90 percent of Jews labeled as “peddlers, traders, and exploiters,” or “non-working elements,” were denied the electoral and labor rights. In order to involve them in the “building of a new life,” a special committee and societies were established and work plans were developed. At the end of the 1920s, Soviet anti-religious propaganda, establishment of new Jewish settlements and collective farms were aimed at separation of Jews from their faith, weakening the main pillars of Georgian Jewish lifestyle and identity and creation of a “new man - a Jewish worker and a Jewish peasant”.
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იდენტობა, საბჭოთა ანტირელიგიური პროპაგანდა, ებრაული თემი, სეკულარიზაცია, Identity, Soviet antireligious propaganda, Jewish community, Secularization
Citation
ივანე ჯავახიშვილის დაბადებიდან 147-ე წლისთავისადმი მიძღვნილი სამეცნიერო კონფერენცია, თეზისები, თბილისი, 2023, გვ.: 51-53