ტრანსფიქსი, თემის კატეგორია, გვარი და დერივაცია სალიტერატურო არაბულის მორფოლოგიაში

Abstract
According to N.Fink, Arabic is a language of the root-flexion (wurzelflektierend) type. In the opinion of Al. Lekiashvili, Arabic root “cannot put up with an affix”. In fact, the Arabic consonantal root can never add a suffix, prefix, infix and circumfix, unless it is with a transfix, if we consider the so-called internal vocalism or internal flexion as a transfix, as is accepted in structural-typological linguistics. One or more (splitting) vocals, included in a consonantal root, mainly represent an auxiliary morph, but there are exceptions – sometimes a transfix together with a consonantal root forms a new root morph, i.e. a stem or model, e.g. rağul: riğl, šağar: šağr, etc. Apparently, a vowel is also involved in the structure of a root morph. A transfix represents flexional, auxiliary morphs in the following cases: F I. qatala: F III qātala, muqaddim: muqaddam (Active and Passive participles), Sing. kitāb: Pl. kutub, etc. Often a transfix expresses a grammeme together with a prefix: kataba: ’aktaba, or together with a prefix and a suffix, e.g.: ṣadīq:’aṣdiqā. Transfix (internal vocalism) is manifested with the function of creating a syllable (simplification of pronunciation), and in some adverbs, prepositions and conjunctions it may be qualified as an empty morpheme. If we consider the concept of transfix acceptable for Arabic morphology, then the share of agglutinative formation and ratio 8:4 offered by Al. Lekiashvili will change essentially in favour of agglutination. In addition, the type of agglutinative formation in Arabic is quite peculiar – a representant of one grammeme may be a prefix, transfix and suffix, and in another form – a prefix and a transfix (Mood representants). The second prefix is a representant of Theme, and the first together with the suffix – a representant of Imperfective. The suffix at the same time is a representant of the Indicative Mood, Person, Number and Tense, e.g. saja-staqbil-ūna. We have simple polysemy of affixes (-at) and morphs of complex composition, segments of which are representants of various grammemes (-ūna in nouns and verbs, etc.). All the above-mentioned and, along with this, fusion with the so-called weak roots allows to recognize in the structure of Arabic morphology a large share of agglutinative as well as fusional-flexional formation. The verb forms include the central opposition of Mood (Active: Passive) and peripheral forms: Causative, Reflexive, Conative, Reciprok, Coaction, etc. It seems that one part of the so-called verb forms does not always represent systemic members of the morphological category, but is included in the pure word-formation (derivational) union on the basis of the ability of expression of non-Mood nuances. Such are the denominative verbs and those expressing syntagmatic meaning (F I, IV, etc.), expression of request (F X), expression of state simulation (F VI), Declarative (F IV, X) and so on. This situation points to the fact that it is not possible to ascribe to the forms of these verb forms only one, grammatical meaning. In addition, when rendering the category of Mood, for individual forms of verb forms the relation of Mood to the main opposition should be defined, as the above-mentioned peripheral Mood forms as well as F VII, and verbs of F VIII, V and X do not have the Passive of transfix formation, unless they express active meaning and accordingly form relevant diathesis.
Description
Keywords
ძირი, ტრანსფიქსი, დამხმარე მორფი, ძირეული მორფი, აგლუტინაცია, გრამემის რეპრეზენტანტი, ფლექსიურ- ფუზიური წარმოება, თემის კატეგორია, Root, Transfix, Auxiliary Morph, Root Morph, Agglutination, Grammeme Representant, Flexional-fusional Formation, Form Category
Citation
აკადემიკოს კონსტანტინე წერეთლის დაბადებიდან მე-100 წლისთავისადმი მიძღვნილი საერთაშორისო კონფერენცია, თეზისები, 2021, გვ.: 11-15/ INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE DEDICATED TO THE CENTENARY OF THE BIRTH OF ACADEMICIAN KONSTANTINE TSERETELI, ABSTRACTS, p.: 11-15