გაბრასები და მათი სამონეტო ემისიები. თეოდორე გაბრასი და დავით აღმაშენებელი. THE GABRIDS AND THEIR MONEY ISSUES. THEODOROS GABRAS AND DAVID IV, KING OF GEORGIA

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Date
2012
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Volume Title
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მერიდიანი/ Meridian Publishers
Abstract
The Empire of Trebizond is thought to be of Georgian design as a permanent threat to Sultanate of Rum. Queen Thamar (1184 - 1210) engineered everything. Still she had a certain pattern. The family of Gabras/Gavras seems to be involved in the story. Alloted with a rank of the dux of Trebizond in the 11th-12th cc., the Gabrids considered those sites as their possession. And any of the Byzantine “rudiments” seems to be allied with Georgia. Last time we wrote about the Georgian money with Byzantinesque – both from the metropolis and province, Constantinople and Trebizond (T. Dundua. The Tale of Two Sebastoses and the Orthodox Alliance. David the King of Georgia and Theodoros Gabras. Phasis. Greek and Roman Studies. v. 5 - 6. Tb. 2003, pp. 71 - 89). That is silver issue of David IV of Georgia (1089 - 1125), having Virgin Orans labelled Blachernitissa on obverse, and cross – on reverse, generally dated by 1089 - 1099. Former type had been provided by metropolis itself, latter – by the coins of the Gabrids from Trebizond (Ph. Grierson. Byzantine Coins. First Published in 1982. London. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles, pp. 228-229, pl. 58). The order of those provincial toparchic issues is only approximate, based mainly on consideration of size, shape and style. But typological and epigraphic structure could be as follows: 1. Bust of St. Theodore/Cross. 2. Bust of Christ/St. Theodore standing. 3. Bust of Christ/Bust of St. Demetrius. 4. Bust of Christ/Plain cross, LBR in quarters. 5. Bust of Christ/Jewelled cross, LBR in quarters. 6. Bust of Christ/Rayed cross with letters [A]LDR at ends. 7. Bust of Christ/Jewelled cross with NI KA in quarters. 8. Bust of Christ/Cross with IC CC NI KA at the ends. 9. Bust of Christ/Cross on leaved baze in pellet border. 10. Christ seated/Jewelled cross on crescent. 11. Bust of Christ/Bust of Emperor. 12. Cross with NI KA in quarters/Bust of Emperor. 13. Bust of Virgin/Letters FFPC around cross. 14. Crude cross/Crude cross. 15. Patriarchal cross on the steps. Xs in angles/As obverse but Es in angles. Comments: One point is clear enough, we have to start with the coins that of St. Theodore depicted on. For he was patron-saint of Theodoros Gabras – ctistes of the toparchy. #2 as the starting point could had broken continuity of Christ-bust typology on obverse. Then #1 is exactly what we need now. St. Theodoros is substituted by St. Demetrius (#3). And next are to come the issues with Alexios’ initials inscribed on (##4 - 6). Then NIKA appears on reverse (##7 - 8). After the legends totally vanish (#9), and Christ is shown first seated (#10), and then with Emperor on reverse (#11). Emperor type meets cross (#12), cross meets Virgin (#13), and at last cross is left alone (##14 - 15). ##1 - 2 are, perhaps, the issues of Theodoros Gabras, ##3 - 6 could be again his, while the rest (##7 - 15) are to be distributed among the next toparchs. David IV chooses the design of either #1, or #4 for his reverse slightly simplifying the cross; or, maybe, reverse of # 5 is exact prototype for his silver coins.
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https://geohistory.humanities.tsu.ge/ge/procedings/83-shromebi/137-shromebi-daviti.html
Keywords
დავით აღმაშენებელი, გაბრასები, ნუმიზმატიკა
Citation
ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის საქართველოს ისტორიის ინსტიტუტის შრომები, სპეციალური გამოშვება დავით აღმაშენებელი და მისი ეპოქა, თბილისი, 2012, გვ. 50-69 / Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Institute of Georgian History Proceedings, Special Issue David Agmashenebeli and His Epoch, Tbilisi, 2012, pp. 50-69
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