მშობლიური ენა და იაკობ გოგებაშვილი
Nikoloz Kandelaki remarks about Iacob Gogebashvili: “In the second half of the 19th century, a prominent Georgian teacher and public fi gure, Iacob Gogebashvili stood next to the leading fi gures of Georgian culture - Ilia and Akaki. With the help of great goals, hopes, and creativity, he paved the way of hard work and struggles and left a glorious name for his descendants” (Kandelaki, 1990: 53). Iacob’s deeds for the Georgian nation are truly immeasurable. “Language is an essential sign of nationality” - wrote Ilia Chavchavadze. Language and nation do not exist without each other: “Language is not only the greatest and most important thing in the life of a nation, but it is almost everything. A nation that does not have its own language is not a nation... A language is synonymous with a nation” (Iveria, 1903: 172). For Iacob Gogebashvili, a nation and a language are inseparable: “The development of a nation directly depends on the development of a language. If a nation is stuck in one spot, it does not move forward and if the language goes backwards and becomes poorer, the thinking of the nation also decreases, it becomes weaker and poorer. If the language moves forward, it blossoms day by day, develops, enriches itself with forms, the thinking of the nation strengthens, the age of its prosperity comes”. He was well aware that “the establishment of the new Georgian literary language required, on the one hand, the theoretical substantiation of its rights and, on the other hand, the fi ght for the purity of the language, and using literary works for the establishment of the new literary Georgian” (Dzidziguri, 1990: 97), which Iacob managed to do together with Ilia and Akaki and became the decorator of the traditions of the common Georgian language. Gogebashvili believed that the necessary preconditions for the establishment of the new Georgian literary language were the consideration of the internal regularity of the Georgian language, the need to create a unifi ed language, the popularity of the literary language and the denial of archaic linguistic phenomena. The books created by Iacob, “The Georgian alphabet and the fi rst reading book”, “The Mother Tongue”, “The Door to Nature”, etc. are of special importance for the enrichment and development of the native language. The Georgian language with all its diversity and charm is immersed in the abovementioned immortal textbooks. According to Shota Dzidziguri, “he gave his textbooks an encyclopedic nature; the younger generation was acquainted with natural sciences, geography, history, literature, ethnography of their native country with the help of these books” (Dzidziguri, 1990: 81). Arn. Chikobava notes that “during the diffi cult years, Iacob Gogebashvili’s “The Mother Tongue” and “The Door to Nature” were the pillars of the Georgian language and the shield of public education”. Iacob Gogebashvili believed that the foundation of the national power (the fi rst pillar) is: “the territory, the land and water, the homeland... The second pillar for the revival of the nation is the mother tongue. The third pillar of the nation’s success is its school. The fourth pillar of a nation’s success is the church. Such a presentation of the role of a language by Jacob is a call for the protection of the purity of the Georgian language, the restoration of the rights of the Georgian language; the suppression of all actions against the Georgian literary language. This is the basis for the establishment of the unifi ed literary Georgian language ”(Gogolashvili, 2013: 65). “Every language that does not reign in the family and school will die... Every language that reigns in the family and school will grow and get strength” (Iacob, 1955: 89). Iacob did everything for the benefi t of the national school. The famous teacher introduced the norms of the Georgian common language to the new generation, through the school he promoted the assimilation of the new Georgian literary language, grammar and lexical composition in diff erent parts of Georgia and in the general population. According to Iacob, learning the mother tongue “connects the child with the soul and heart of the whole nation, with its long historical life and fi lls them with spiritual strength” (Dzidziguri, 1990: 91). Iacob Gogebashvili, “a child of the past, educator of the present and protector of the future”, with all his life and works, is “a pillar of the nation”, a great supporter and protector of the native Georgian language.
მშობლიური ენა, ეროვნება, განათლება, ნორმა, the native language, nationality, education, norm
იაკობ გოგებაშვილისადმი მიძღვნილი ქართველოლოგიური სამეცნიერო კონფერენცია, თეზისები, 2021 გვ.: 63-69/ KARTVELOLOGICAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE DEDICATED TO IAKOB GOGEBASHVILI, Abstracts, 2021, p.: 63-69