მინდიეთის თემი (ზედა მაჭახელი, თურქეთის რესპუბლიკა)

dc.contributor.authorგუჯეჯიანი, როზეტა
dc.date.accessioned2022-06-01T06:43:27Z
dc.date.available2022-06-01T06:43:27Z
dc.date.issued2012
dc.descriptionhttps://geohistory.humanities.tsu.ge/ge/procedings/83-shromebi/147-shromebi-6.htmlen_US
dc.description.abstractMindieti community (“Maral”) is in Zeda (Upper) Machakheli. Zeda (Upper) Machakheli belongs to Turkey from 1921 while Kveda (Lower) Machakheli was a part of Georgia occupied by Bolshevik Russia. Machakheli gorge was declared a closed zone by the Soviet Union as well as by the Republic of Turkey; the communication between the two parts of gorges was forbidden for sixty years. After creation of the Republic of Georgia the relations between the relatives living in different parts of the gorge have been restored. Zeda (Upper) Machakheli (Jamili in Turkish) consists of 6 communities: Khertvisi, Zedvake, Eprati, Kvabitavi, Mindieti, Akria. There are several villages (Mahalea) in every community. The administrative centre of Zeda (Upper) Machakheli is Khertvisi, Borchkha district, vilayet (region) of Artvin. Nowadays there are 500 families in Zeda (Upper) Machakheli, almost half of them stay in gorge for winter. It is pleasant that after the retirement people from Machakheli return to their motherland from big cities. Mindieti community is situated in Didghele gorge. There are some other streams in Mindieti: Tsivnareti stream, Zekaleti Stream etc. Zeda (Upper) Machakheli is recognized to be a protected territory by UNESCO. There are several big and small villages in Mindieti community: Iremeti, Zekaleti, Osaneti, Kavtareti, Givieti, Tsetskhleti, Konkalati, Zemtkisi, Zemvare (Givieti’s Sakaria, Mahale), the half of Veli, the half of Tsiakhi, Tsivnareti, Kortaneti, Gogortke, Jorieti, Didtke. The population of Mindieti is ethnically Georgian. The old name of Machakheli is Michikhiani. Michikhiani was a part of eparchy of Tbeti. From 1878 Machakheli was under the jurisdiction of the Russian Empire. As a result of the Russian anti-Georgian policy, many Georgians left the gorge in 1881-1882 as well as in 1921. The memory about Georgian surnames is saved in Mindieti. There are several surnames which are represented in an unchanged form, for example Iremadze, Katamadze, Tsivnaridze, Giviadze etc. A large part of surnames have Islamic form: Ikhtiaroghli, Metinoghli etc. After creation of the Republic of Turkey new Turkish surnames were given to the population of Mindieti as well as to the citizens of Turkey. The knowledge about the traditional agricultural-economic relations between historical Georgian regions – Zeda (Upper) Machakheli, Nigali/Ligani, Shavsheti (the Republic of Turkey nowadays) and Adjara is saved in population. Unlike other parts of historical Georgia, the migration processes are not common in Zeda (Upper) Machakheli. The number of population in Mindieti community decreases in winter, but several families stay in almost every village. The type of settlement in Zeda (Upper) Machakheli is traditionally Georgian, Khevispiruli. Villages and dwellings are situated in vertical zone. Villages are divided into districts. The people with the same surnames, close relatives live mainly in districts. The dwellings in Zeda (Upper) Machakheli are traditionally made of chestnut trees, with the stone foundations, covered with lath distilled from spruce or tiles; they represent the local varieties of Adjarian house. The indivisible parts of the dwellings are barn and granary. From the traditional branches of economy they still follow agriculture (wheat is almost wholly replaced by maize) and stock farming (they have cattle, goats, sheep). Growing maize is the main branch of economy in Machakheli. A big part of cornfields and mowing lands has been covered with hazelnut bushes during the past twenty years, because they are important sources of income. The traditional Georgian mutual aid form – Nadi is saved as well as some kind of vine varieties (Chkhaveri). The vine grows up on the high trees, mainly on the Leki (maple) tree. People in Mindieti have gardens. The traditional food system in Zeda (Upper) Machakheli mainly consists of dairy products and vegetables. The traditional forms of stock farming coexist with the modern life. Every village has its own Mta (Mereta). The folk feast of Shuamtoba was held traditionally in the mountains. The subsidiary branch of the economy – bee-keeping is also developed. From the traditional branches of handicraft wood carpenter and partly blacksmith’s work is preserved. The tradition of weaving is saved in elderly women. The looms are kept in families. The traditional family and economic equipment and the rules of their production is preserved in Mindieti as well as the wooden covered bridge of rare construction and beauty and comparatively new stone arched bridge, which is built according to the traditional Georgian architectural standards. The older generation remembers some elements of traditional spiritual culture, for example, New Year; the fragments of folk feast of Garegnoba (Gargnoba) are preserved as well as the legends about King Tamar. There are several Jameh mosques. The oldest is the Mindieti Jameh; the elements of the traditional Georgian ornaments can be seen in its internal carvings. Zeda (Upper) Machakheli is also interesting linguistically. Among Georgian historical-ethnographic regions, which are the part of Turkey, only Machakheli has no threat of losing the Georgian language at this stage.en_US
dc.identifier.citationივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის საქართველოს ისტორიის ინსტიტუტის შრომები, VI, თბილისი, 2012, გვ. 357-371 / Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Institute of Georgian History Proceedings, VI, Tbilisi, 2012, pp. 357-371en_US
dc.identifier.issn1987–9970
dc.identifier.urihttps://dspace.tsu.ge/handle/123456789/1552
dc.language.isogeen_US
dc.publisherმერიდიანიen_US
dc.subjectზედა მაჭახელიen_US
dc.subjectეთნოგრაფიაen_US
dc.subjectფოლკლორიen_US
dc.titleმინდიეთის თემი (ზედა მაჭახელი, თურქეთის რესპუბლიკა)en_US
dc.title.alternativeMINDIETI COMMUNITY (ZEDA MACHAKHELI, REPUBLIC OF TURKEY)en_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
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