მცენარეთა სახელების სემიტური ნასესხობები ქართულ ოთხთავში: ზეთის ხილი

Abstract
During the study of plant names in the Georgian Gospel I tried to answer a few basic questions: how are the plant names transferred in the Georgian Gospel texts – by the way of borrowing, translation, or replacing with the equivalents of the similar semantics? Are there any Proto-Kartvelian roots among the plant names testified in the Gospels? Are there any examples when with the borrowed vocabulary we also come across with the Georgian (Kartvelian) synonym forms? Did the borrowed material appear in the Georgian language system by the way of the Gospel texts translation, or did it exist before? Which cultural, religious motives are related to each plant name in the given context? How are the Kartvelian and borrowed roots distributed (for example, depending on the fact whether the plant is endemic, grows in Georgia or not)? How adequate are the lexical equivalents and how are the errors explained? etc.; This time the article deals with the Semitic borrowing, in particular, zetis xili (olive). zetis xil- is observed in the Georgian Gospel in the following places: L. 19, 29; L. 21, 37; M. 21, 1; 26, 30; M 24, 3; Mr. 11, 1; Mr. 13, 3; Mr. 14, 26; L. 22, 39; L. 19, 37. Georgian zet- stem comes from Arabic zajt. The multiple illustrative materials of the mentioned name (zeti, zetis xe, zetis xeoani, zetis-xili, zetis-xilovani) in old Georgian texts shows that this stem has been well established in Georgian vocabulary. Determining the exact borrowing path (Aramaic, Syriac or Arabic) of stem zet- in Georgian is difficult only on the basis of phonetics, although the Semitic origin of this stem is not in doubt. zetis xil-: Olea europaea L. (the root borrowed from Syriac to Arabic): Geo. ზეთის ხილი [zetis xili]; Grk. ἑλαια ἠ [elaja]; Lat. oliva (f.); Hebr. תּיז [zayiä]; Arm. ձեթենի [jet’eni]; Arab. نوتیز [zajtūn]; Pers. (Arab.) نوتیز [zeˆyt, zeˆytūn]; Turk. zeytin; Eng. Olive; Germ. Őlbaum (m.); Fran. olivier (m.); Rus. оливковое дерево, маслина.
Description
Keywords
ქართული სახარება, სემიტური ნასესხობები, მცენარეთა სახელები, Georgian Gospel, Semitic Borrowings, Plant Names
Citation
აკადემიკოს კონსტანტინე წერეთლის დაბადებიდან მე-100 წლისთავისადმი მიძღვნილი საერთაშორისო კონფერენცია, თეზისები, 2021, გვ.: 142-144/ INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE DEDICATED TO THE CENTENARY OF THE BIRTH OF ACADEMICIAN KONSTANTINE TSERETELI, ABSTRACTS, p.: 142-144