ახალი სპარსულიდან ქართულში შემოსულ ზმნურ ნასესხობათათვის. ON THE VERBAL LOANS BORROWED BY GEORGIAN FROM NEW PERSIAN

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2022-07-14
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A significant part of the lexical units borrowed by Georgian from New Persian comprises verbal loans. There are only two examples of borrowed simple verbs with certain semantic changes: sänj-id-än 1. „think over “, 2. „compare “, 3. „weigh “, 4. „measure“>Georgian „ga-sinj-va: sinj-av-s“ – 1. „try, taste“, 2.„examine“ and nävärd-id-än 1. „pass, overcome“, 2. „travel, wander“>Georgian „navard-ob-a: navard-ob-s“ – „frolic, run about“. The borrowing of the present tense forms of these verbs proves the opinion that „if verbs are borrowed, they seem to be borrowed as if they were nouns: the borrowing language employs its means of denominal verbalization to turn the borrowed forms into verbs before using them as such“(Moravcsik, 1978: 111-112). Compound verbs, which form the majority of Persian verbs, are borrowed by Georgian chiefly in the form of hyper-calques. This means the transfer of the nominal part of the verb without translation and the translation of the verbal component only (F. Antadze, 2012:51). The hyper-calqued verbal loans borrowed by Georgian from Persian are mostly compound verbs consisting of two components. The verbal element in this case is represented by simple verbs, for instance, Persian sofre gostärd-än>Georgian „supr-is ga-šl-a: supra ga-šal-a“ – „spread a table cloth, lay the table“. The etymons of some hyper-calques are verbs with multiple components, e.g. xåter-e käsi-rå šekäst-än>Georgian „xatr-is ga- ṭex-a: xatr-i ga-u-ṭex-a“ – „neglect someone’s opinion, wish“. In some cases, there are parallel variants of the hyper-calques represented in the form of denominal verbs, see Persian nešån dåd-än>Georgian hyper-calque „nišn-is mi-cem-a“: nišan-i mi-s-c-a/ denominal verb „a-nišn -a“ – „give a sign“. Some of the Persian verbs with two components are adapted in Georgian only in the form of denominal verbs. The etymons of such loans are chiefly based on the verbs kärd-an and šod-an. For instance, Persian fekr kärd-an>Georgian pikr-i: pikr-ob-s – „think“, jäm’ šod-an (passive) – „gather“>Georgian še-jam-eb-a: jam-d-eb-a – „summarize“. On the earlier stage of borrowing, the hyper-calques of these verbs were also found. For instance, in the medieval literary monuments we fi nd zäbun šod-an>„ʒabun i-qmn-a“ instead of the present-day form „da-ʒabun-d-a“ (passive) – „become feeble“. There is one example in which a phraseological unit represented by the verb with multiple components is adapted in Georgian in the form of a denominal verb: Persian mesl-e bot istådän – “stand there like a stuff ed dummy“>Georgian ga-bot-va: ga -i- bot -a – 1. „spraddle legs“, 2. „be stubborn“. The polysemantic nature of the etymon is mostly restricted in the verbs borrowed from Persian. In certain cases, the meaning is also changed.
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ზმნური ნასესხობები, მარტივი ზმნები, შედგენილი ზმნები, ნასახელარი ზმნები, ჰიპერკალკი, Verbal loans, simple verbs, compound verbs, denominal verbs, hyper-calque
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ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტი ჰუმანიტარულ მეცნიერებათა ფაკულტეტი, აკადემიკოს მარიამ ლორთქიფანიძის დაბადებიდან 100 წლის იუბილესადმი მიძღვნილი XVI საფაკულტეტო სამეცნიერო კონფერენცია, თეზისები, თბილისი, 2022, გვ.: 17-21 / Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Faculty of Humanities, 16th FACULTY SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE IN HONOUR OF THE 100th ANNIVERSARY OF THE BIRTH OF MARIAM LORTKIPANIDZE, Abstracts, Tbilisi, 2022, pp.: 17-21