ანთროპონიმები იმერეთის XI-XII საუკუნეთა ეპიგრაფიკაში

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Date
2022
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უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა
Abstract
Among the ancient Georgian epigraphic monuments that have been survived and reached us, the inscriptions of Imereti of the XI-XII centuries, which are especially rich by anthroponyms, can be distinguished. Along with the names of gods, angels, saints, and martyrs, we find the names and surnames of persons from high and relatively low hierarchy, of those who ordered the inscriptions and those who made them. The object of our research is the anthroponyms preserved in the lapidary inscriptions of Kutaisi, Khoni, Vani, Terjola, Chiatura, Sachkhere (88 inscr. in total) (compiled by V. Silogava, 1980). Most of them are from the XI century. In Georgian anthroponymy, along with the names of Georgian persons, foreign ones are also distinguished. According to R. Topchishvili, foreign names first of all paved their way among the representatives of the privileged class of Georgian people, and finally “all the entered names coexisted together with the canonized Christian and Georgian-Kartvelian proper names” (Topchishvili, 2002, p. 93). According to the datas of epigraphic monuments of Imereti, the situation is similar in XI-XII centuries. For example, we find names entered from Hebrew (some of them with variants): Iva (Heb. Gift of God): „u~o, ga(n)usu(e)ne sulsa Ivaisasa...“ (Tuzi, Terjola). The variant of this name should be Ivna mentioned in the inscription of Ivna(Simoneti, Terjola): „K~E, sh~e Ivnai(ჲ)“. According to V. Silogava, Iva and Ivna, may both be related to the name Iv(a)nai(ჲ) (Inscriptions from Western Georgia, 1980, p. 112), The original form of which – Iovane, is confirmed in the epigraphy of Imereti: „...Sh~e I(ჲ)(ovan)e... shvilni I(ჲ)(ovan)esni(ჲ)“ (Kutaisi State History Museum, XI-XII cc.). The origin of this name is considered to be Iehokhanan, Iohanan (Heb. To whom God has mercy). It was borrowed from Hebrew into Greek, and from there it was spread into many languages around the world. “(It) is entered in Georgian language in the form of the Greek vocative... and in Khanmet-Haemet texts (more later as well) we find Iohane, then – Ioane and Iovane, finally – Ivane, shortened form of which is – Vano... It seems that in the second half of the X century Ivane was already established in Georgian, but in writing, under the influence of the literary tradition, Iovane still prevailed” (Chumburidze, 1987, p. 353); Iakob-i (Heb. disciple): „k~e, sh~e Iakob“ (Simoneti, Terjola)... It originally meant the second one of the twins, and then it acquired the meaning of disciple, a follower of God (ibid., p. 344); In the XI century the name Mikael-i was widely spread (Heb. godlike, divine): „[tsmidao s(a)m(e)b(a)o, sh(eitsqal)e Mi[k(a) el], ese kvaჲ m[an] [sh]stsira“ (Bajiti, Sachkhere); It is also found in Darkveta (Chiatura), Ghvankiti (Terjola) inscriptions. Mikaeli also entered from Hebrew into Greek and in this way spread in various forms in many languages of the world (Chumburidze, 2003, p. 187). The name Lishai (= gift) mentioned in the XI-XII century inscription in Khoni must be Hebrew: „ts~o g~i, sh~ e [I(ov)]ane lishai G(iorg)is dzei(ჲ) a~n“. There are a few names with -i vowel stems in Georgian. Most of them are borrowed from Greek names ended in -ios. The most common of these is Giorgi. It is noteworthy that in the XI century epigraphy of Imereti, Giorgi is mostly found as a symbol of saints and martyrs, persons of high hierarchy. for example: „ts~o G(iorg)i, meokh eq(a)v ts(inash)e...“ ( Savane, Sachkhere); [mt(av(a)r]m(o)ts(a)misa G(iorg)i(s)sa...“(Gadidi,Vani); „ts~o s(a)m(e)b(a)o, sh~ e d(ide)b[u]li G(iorg)i m(e)p(e) i(ჲ)“(katskhi, chiatura); „...me, G(iorg)i e(ristavt)-e(ristavman) avashene ese ts~i(ı) eklesiai(ჲ) savanis(a)i(ჲ)“ ( Savane)... Giorgi is also found as the name of persons of low hierarchy: „[ts~o s(a)m(e)b(a)o, sh~e G(iorg)i ese kvai (ı) m(a)tda iqida“ (Bajiti, Sackhere)... Kvi(ჳ)rike (< Greek Lord, Sir): „† ts~o g~i, sh~e K(vi(ჳ)rik)e...“ (Simoneti, Terjola); „...shv(i)l(n)i Goliat(i)sni: A(n)toni Godobreli, L(i)p(ari)t და K(v(ჳ)irik)e...“ (darkveti, chiatura)... Georgian equivalent of Kvi(ჳ)rike is considered to be Uplisa, which has been the name of many historical figures in Georgian from the early times ... In the epigraphy of Imereti there are also the names of persons of Persian origin: Rati (Pers. lord or magnanimous, great-hearted): „a(gh)vashene [...] Ratisa da, [...] tsodvilisa s(u)lisa ch(e)misa“ (Gadidi, Vani). Rati is the family name of the Eristavi(Feudal Lords) (Chumburidze, 1987, p. 364); Saurmag-i (Old Pers. Black-shouldered): „† ts~o g~i, sh~ e S(a)urm(a)g, dze akunisa...“ (Savane, Sachkhere). Saurmag) was called the son of King Parnavaz (III century BC) ... Khursi Eristavi (Feudal Lord) is mentioned in the constructing inscription of the temple in 1046 (Savane, Sachkhere). It is a Persian name meaning bear (Georgian genealogy: http://www.geogen.ge/ge/msearch/4334/). comp. Khovi(ჳ)rsi (> Khursi): „† s(a)m(e)b(a)o ts~o sh~ e da adide M(a)r(ia)m deopali da shvilni misni – g~i da Khovi(ჳ)rsi“ (Koreti, Sachkhere); Vardan-i (Tuzi, Terjola) is Persian and means hero or citizen. It entered from Armenian (Chumburidze, 1987, p. 338). Other names mentioned in inscriptions of Imereti must also be of Eastern origin: Iohab-ი (Katskhi, Chiatura), Haraba (Haraba inscr., 1046), Ioane, Iakob(i), Mikael(i), Giorgi, Rati (like many other names) are Georgianized, canonized Christian names (Topchishvili, 2002, p. 94). In the ancient fund of Georgian anthroponyms Al. Ghlonti distinguishes three groups: basic, derivative, and composed names. The first two of them are chronologically attributed to the ancient layer by the scientist, and the composed ones ‒ to the later (1986, p. 15). The names of all three groups are confirmed in Imereti. Two group of names are distinguished in Anthroponymy. They are: 1. unmotivated, and 2. Motivated (Goderdzishvili, 2012, p. 50). Anthroponymy of Imereti Lapidarium is semantically heterogeneous. According to our material, motivated, anthroponimized names of transparent etymology are distinguished: Khutsi (Katskhi), Molozoni(ჲ) (Koreti), Khatisa (Simoneti), Perisa (Koreti), Ianvar (ibid). The vowel-stem variant of this name – Ianvara is known, which, according to Z. Chumburidze, is a Georgian name, meaning “born in January”, “Of January”. The name Ianvar-i (January) itself, in turn, is derived from the name of the Roman deity Ianus (Janus) (Georgian genealogy: http://www.geogen.ge/ge/msearch/4312/). R. Topchishvili notes that in the first volume of “Kartlis Tskhovreba” (“Life of Kartli”) the Georgian name itself is found only twice among the honorees: Zviadi and Kakhaberi. “Zviad-i was a popular name in Georgia of all times. It is also found in a 13th century document” (2002, pg. 94). According to our analytical material, Zviad-i is confirmed earlier in the inscriptions of Perevi (Chiatura), as well as Koreti (Sachkhere) in the XI century. In the same epoch there is also found its composed version Gulzviad-i: „avashene... s(a)l(o)cv(e)l(a)d ...msh(o)b(e)lta ch(e)mtatvis – G(u)lz(via)d(i)st(vi)s da M(a)r(iami)st(vis)...“ ( Savane, Sachkhere). The etymology of some anthroponyms is not clear. These are, for example: Goliati (Darkveti, Chiatura), Vashaqma (Tuzi), Shalva (Simoneti; Bajiti...). Al. Chincharauli connects Shalva with the Georgian name Shavleg (= black, brunette): “A man came to his mother: your Shavleg was killed... Shalva’s mother was crying, tousling her agate-like hair” (Georgian folk poetry, XI, 17: http://www.geogen.ge/ge/msearch/4328/), According to Z. Chumburidze, Shalva is Jewish and means peace, but the scientist does not exclude the supposition of Al. Chincharauli about its connection with the Georgian name, Shavleg. Shalva was the family name of Toreli. Its earlier form Shavela> Shavla is preserved in the surnames: Shavladze, Shavlidze, Shavelashvili ... (Chumburidze, 1987, p. 373). Unmotivated names are: Liparit-i (Darkveti), Which has an unknown meaning and is entered into Armenian from Georgian. It is the name of the feudal lords of Trialeti (Chumburidze, 1987, p. 353); Lachkhi, Kokhala (Darkveti); Ikhna (Simoneti); Sira (Katskhi); Korda (Koreti)... In the Lapidarium of Imereti the names of women from the high hierarchy of the XI century are preserved: Guarandukht-i – mother of King Bagrat (inscription of Bagrati Cathedral, Kutaisi), Mariam-i – mother of George feudal lord of Eristavi (Savane, Sachkhere), Tskhoreba – daughter of feudal lord of Eristavi (Katskhi, Chiatura)... Analytical material is rich in other types of onomastic material, which shows the history of a surname, family name or nickname. It is as follows: „...M(i)k(a)el Michvitinisa dz(e)i“ (Koreti), „...M(i)k(a)el Mchevrais dze Kordai“ (ibid). comp. Mchevrais dze – Chirai(ჲ)s dzis. or: Ch(a)relis dze (V. Silogava) (inscriptions of werstern Georgia, 1980, pg. 126), „...Iochipi(s) dzeni“ (ibid)... in other inscriptions as well: „...Jikh(/ჴ)uaisdzisa...“ (Katskhi); „...Ghvinos dzei Giorgi“ (Simoneti); „...Gm(i)r(i)sdzissa K(vi(ჳ)rik)esa“ (Savane); „...S(a)jis dze G(iorg)i“ (Khoni, XI-XII სკ.); „...St(e)p(a)ne K(ala)t(o)zi“ (Simoneti)... The family name originated in Georgia in the era of early feudalism, and in the VII-VIII centuries the process of its formation seems almost complete (Ghlonti, 1986, p. 48). This opinion is shared by Z. Chumburidze, R. Topchishvili... This is evidenced by the data of epigraphic monuments of Imereti. They also show that preference is given to the name or nickname of the ancestor, and from the ancestor – the name of the man as the head of the family, the leader of the surname (Chumburidze, 1987, p. 295). Lapidary inscriptions of Imereti of XI-XII centuries are made on church buildings and are mostly of ecclesiastical nature. The anthroponymy preserved in them provides important information about secular persons and authorities, as well as representatives of a relatively low hierarchy and shows the material and spiritual values of social life in one of the parts of Georgia, Imereti, at that time.
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Keywords
ეპიგრაფიკა, სემანტიკა, მოტივირებული, ინფორმაცია, გვარი, Epigraphy, semantics, motivated, information, surname
Citation
ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის ქართული ენის ინსტიტუტი. სამეცნიერო სესია მიძღვნილი პროფესორ ფარნაოზ ერთელიშვილის ხსოვნისადმი, მასალები, თბილისი, 2022, გვ. 9-19 / Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Institute of the Georgian Language. Scientific Session Dedicated to the Memory of Professor Pharnaoz Ertelishvili, Proceedings, Tbilisi, 2022, pp. 9-19