Geographical Features of Transport System Development of Georgia

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The transport is a complex system, which ensures sustainable functioning and development of economic and social sectors. After gaining independence its favorable geographic location made Georgia an important part of the European- Central Asian transportation corridor and established prerequisites for the country to become the regional transport hub. By economic convergence with the EU Georgia steadily gained the status of transit country that secured its economic advance and stability. The main modes of transport system of Georgia are: rail road, road (automobile) transport, maritime, air and pipeline transport. Almost all types of Georgian transport are involved in transit and import-export operations. Georgia's transport and logistics account for 6.3 percent of the country's gross domestic product (National Statistics Office of Georgia). Within the presentation I will discuss transportation system of Georgia as a tool of country’s economic development. For the analysis of the subject I will use the location theory or theories of spatial analysis. The methods of research will be the analysis of secondary data, comparative and statistical analysis. The expansion of Georgia’s transport networks is affected by natural-geographical and economic-geographical factors, that namely determine the peculiarities of transport network location and conditions of transport operationს. Recently, Georgia's transport infrastructure has been modernized, the road network(automobile) has been rehabilitated, airports have been expanded, railway lines have been renewed, and new port projects have been planned and implemented. Worldwide there is a tendency of increase of intermodal shipments, that means usage of different types of transportation for loads and the development of interconnected infrastructure. In order to improve the transport-logistical efficiency of Georgia, it is necessary to ensure the reliability of the system and intermodal shipments. Georgia has to offer to the rest of the world extended infrastructure, high quality and low-cost service, otherwise it will risk losing its transit cargo, which will flow into competing alternative corridors due to low quality of service and high rates. The prospect of Georgia's transportation system development can be seen within the integrated transport network in the South Caucasus, which is not easy task due to peculiarities of local terrain and conflicts in the region.
Georgian transport system, Sustainable economic development, Transport corridor, Cargo flows, Transit