ნაცვალსახელთა ერთი ჯგუფისათვის ახალ ქართულ ენაში

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Date
2023
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ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა
Abstract
Pronouns in Georgian language, like the grammatical descriptions of other languages, are classified by semantics, i.e. according to their meaning, and, conforming to the generally accepted opinion, we can distinguish between: personal, demonstrative, interrogative, possessive, interrogative-possesive, relative, relational, definite, indefinite and negative groups of pronouns [Shanidze, 1980; Martirosov, 1964]. In this respect, our attention is drawn to those groups, in the composition of which the particle forms are united. In the linguistic literature these units are referred to as relative pronouns („ვინ-ც“ (“vin – ts”), „რა-ც“ (“ra – ts”) and the like) or one set of indefinite pronouns, which are produced by adding the particles „-მე“ (“me”) or „-ღა-ც[ა]“ (“gha-ts[a]”) to interrogative pronouns (“ვინ-მე” (“vin-me”), „რა-მე“ (“ra-me”) „ვი-ღა-ც[ა]“ (“vi-gha-ts[a]”), რა-ღა-ც[ა] (“ra-gha-ts[a]”), etc.). As well as that, in the Georgian scientific literature, inflectional pronouns „იგივე“ (“igive”) and „ერთი და იგივე“ (“erti da igive”) are not classified in a specific group, which, we think, inadequately describes the modern system of pronouns both in terms of semantics and form. For more specification, we would like to note that neither Shanidze nor Martirosov place the named pronouns into classification groups in their scientific works and generally leave open the issue of their belonging to any semantic group. There is no doubt that the forms „იგივე“ (“igive”) and „ერთი და იგივე“ (“erti da igive”) are pronouns. That is why Ak. Shanidze groups „იგივე“ (“igive”) with „–ვე“ (“-ve”) particle nouns, he addresses it as a pronoun but does not say anything about which group it belongs to. In the “Basics of the Grammar of the Georgian Language” we read: “The particle „–ვე“ (“-ve”) is attached to all nouns, but it shows its peculiarity only with pronouns and numerals” (Shanidze, 1980, p. 104). The scientist considers their main features to be, on the one hand, the addition of the particle to the stem and, on the other hand, the presence of “too many mixed forms” („ორთავენი“ (“ortaveni”), „სამთავენი“ (“samtaveni”) with numerical nouns. The following question arises: why are not they included in the groups of pronouns, and which of the groups (we mean content groups) can they be assigned to, if they are reffered to as pronouns in the scientific literature? We think that both of these pronouns could not be included in the traditionally classified groups due to the functional difference. „იგივე“ (“igive”) and „ერთი და იგივე“ (“erti da igive”) denote identity, that is, the sameness. Perhaps it remains an inexplicable phenomenon why they were kind of ignored when categorising pronouns into groups. It is possible to think that it was considered somewhat unacceptable to allocate an independent group for pronouns with two independent meanings, although there is a contradiction in this conceptual vector as well. The point is that the interrogative-possessive group also consists of two members (ვისი? (visi?) რისა? (risa?)//რისი? (risi?)) and they are not affected by such a restriction. Undoubtedly, pronouns „იგივე“ (“igive”) and „ერთი და იგივე“ (“erti da igive”) are significantly different from personal and demonstrative pronouns by forms and functions, although they also show some similarity to these groups. This is also logical, because from the point of view of genesis, they were initially demonstrative forms, then turned into personal pronouns, and in the modern language they form independent entities. We would like to note that pronouns „იგივე“ (“igive”) and „ერთი და იგივე“ (“erti da igive”) cannot be equated with personal pronouns with the same semantics, which, despite the addition of the particle „-ვე“ (“-ve”), remain functionally personal pronouns. These are: „მევე“ (“meve”), „შენვე“ (“shenve”), „მანვე“ (“manve”) and others. The latter do not have the ability to stand as a finite noun in the Georgian language, and that is why they remain in the group of personal pronouns. Hence, we think that there is an important gap in the description of the Georgian language from the point of view of the pronouns „იგივე“ (“igive”) and „ერთი და იგივე“ (“erti da igive”), and the only way to solve the problem is to introduce a new substantive group in the pronouns, we consider it appropriate to separate the so-called uniform group. In our opinion, this kind of approach will make the system much more complete, and an independent group, named – uniform, will combine two extremely important pronouns for the Georgian language.
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ეძღვნება პროფესორ ფარნაოზ ერთელიშვილის დაბადებიდან მე-100 წლისთავს/ Dedicated to the 100th Birthday of Prof. Parnaoz Ertelishvili
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სამეცნიერო შრომების კრებული, ქართველური ენათმეცნიერება, IX, 2023, გვ.: 106-113/ COLLECTED SCIENTIFIC WORKS, KARTVELIAN LINGUISTICS, IX, 2023, pp.: 106-113
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