ეთნოკულტურული პროცესები ზემო აფხაზეთში (დალი, კოდორის ხეობა)

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Date
2012
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Volume Title
Publisher
მერიდიანი
Abstract
According to the historical sources, today’s Zemo (upper) Abkhazia was called as Dali Svaneti, i.e. Abkhazian Svaneti, which was later named as Kodori Gorge. Since ancient times it belonged to Svaneti (Western Georgian Highlands) and it was obvious that this territory was always an integral part of Georgia. Dali Svaneti was connected to the Balskvemo Svaneti by the narrow path (from Chuberi community) to the Jerildi Mountain chain, Dali or Abkhazian Svaneti villages are mainly situated on the banks of the river Kodori and on its beginnings (Sakeni, Gvandra). Dali gorge was actively mentioned in entire early Medieval history of Georgia: in the 4th - 7th centuries Persia and Byzantium attempted to conquer Georgia. In the second half of the 5th century Georgian King Vakhtang Gorgasali united Svaneti (including Dali) with the Kingdom of Kartli . Wars between Sassanid Iran and Byzantium, which started in 542, abruptly reflected on two parts of Svaneti – Misimianeti (Dali gorge) and Balsqvemo (Lower Bali) Svaneti. During the Arab invasions (735-738), the Dali gorge population obeyed the Kartli Prince Stephanoz III and his heirs. Later in the Western Georgia new Georgian state, Egrisi-Abkhazian Kingdom, was established. Later it became a part of United Georgian Kingdom. At the end of the 16th century, there started basic changes in ethnical groups (communities) of Abkhazia. In the result of the permanent invasions from the North Caucasus, the local Georgian population started replacement (movement) from Dali gorge to the deeper part of Svaneti. In the 17th - 18th centuries in the result of the permanent invasions of the northern Caucasians, the Chuberi gorge was depopulated for long time, and in Dali gorge the Georgian (Svanetian) population was almost destructed and they were gradually replaced by the newly come Adyghean/Abkhazian ethnical group. According to the ethnographical materials, a part of the survived Georgians of Dali gorge resettled in the Balsqvemo Svanetian villages. Subsequently, from the beginning of the 19th century, there started the Georgians big resettlement processes in Dali gorge. This was not a process of development of the new, unknown territories but resettlement of the Georgians to their historical living place, Dali Svaneti. Until 30-40s of the 19th century the Abkhazian cattlemen and shepherds paid taxes to the rulers of the Balsqvemo (Lower Bali) Svaneti the Dadeshqelians, in order to use the productive pastures in the mountains of Dali gorge. After the first occupation of Georgia by Russia, the Abkhazians stopped paying taxes, in the result of which, there often took places multiple attacks between the Svanetian principality and the Abkhazians. Soon the Russians started to be settled in the gorge. The government harshly opposed settlement of the Georgians there, but still by 1926 there were 29 Georgian villages in Dali gorge. Georgian population of Dali gorge was deprived of opportunity to have educational and medical establishments for a long period, people lived in unbearable conditions. After the second occupation of Georgia by the Russians, the autonomous district of Abkhazia was divided into 5 uyezds (districts). Kodori gorge entered into various administrative borders. After liberation of Georgia in 1991, Dali gorge was within the frames of Gulripshi region, Azhara community of the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia. After the Russian-Georgian War (2008), Russian military forces occupied the Kodori gorge. At this moment, there are about 2600 Georgian refugees from the Dali gorge.
Description
https://geohistory.humanities.tsu.ge/ge/procedings/83-shromebi/146-shromebi-5.html
Keywords
დალის ხეობა, ზემო აფხაზეთი, კოდორი, ჭუბერი
Citation
ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის საქართველოს ისტორიის ინსტიტუტის შრომები, V, თბილისი, 2012, გვ. 193-207 / Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Institute of Georgian History Proceedings, V, Tbilisi, 2012, pp. 193-207
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