კვალიფიკაციათა ძირითადი სახეები ქართული ენის განმარტებითსა და ქართულ-გერმანულ ლექსიკონებში

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Date
2023
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ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა
Abstract
The main types of qualification traditionally established and used in the Georgian lexicography are discussed in the given work. They namely are as follows: the period, place and branch of usage of the lexical units, their emotional coloring and corresponding stylistic characteristics; also, the qualification of the lexical units and lexicographic means of presenting them in the Georgian Language Explanatory Dictionary as well as in the Bilingual Georgian-German Dictionary. There are several words in the lexis of any language, differing in emotional coloring, alongside with the neutral lexis. Some lexical units are usable only in the language of poetry, others in colloquial speech, or only in the official speech e.g., Georgian word loqha ‘cheek’ and tuchebi – ‘lips’ are neutral common words but the words ghatsvi and bageebi (in the same meaning as above) are used only in poetic style. The destination of any kind of dictionaries, besides giving the phonetic, grammatical and semantic characteristics of words, is to deliver full information about their emotionalexpressive coloring. According the special literature, the references of the word-entry include four groups of qualification: time, style, place and branch qualifications (Margalitadze, 2019:30-31). But it should be noted that such kinds of qualifications cannot be protected from the subjective approach (Duden, Deutsches Universalwörterbuch), because it is well known that the lexis which is absolutely normal and neutral for one person can be offensive or unbearable for others or simply incomprehensible, for example, it can be understood as poetic, archaic, sometimes even mocking, rude and many other types. This is approved by means of comparison of the different dictionaries data. Emotional lexis expresses positive attitudes (courtesy, respect, caress, humor) or negative ones such as mocking, disrespect, irony, diminution. Different stylistic coloring of the words are reflected in the first volume of the Explanatory Dictionary of the Georgian Language (1950) where along with the word explanations, the sphere of their distribution is pointed out (such as: science, technical sphere, or something else), period of usage (new, old, Soviet period, neologism) and geographical area of usage (from which dialect) are also used to underline the character of the words. The words carrying emotional-stylistic coloring are the words of caressing, diminutive words, ironic words, euphemisms, polite words, diminutive, diminutive-caressing, coarse words, or respectful words, there we have also colloquial, bookish and other kinds of words. This principle is carried out through all of the eight volumes of the abovementioned Explanatory Dictionary and the same principle is also preserved in the new edition of the mentioned dictionary. For the history of the Georgian lexicography the translating dictionaries are also of great importance, namely, Georgian-German dictionary edited in Zurich (1960-1976) (compiled by Kita Tschenkéli) in which the corresponding qualifications are represented in German as it was aimed for the German speaking users (see. Tschenkéli, 1960-1974). The place qualifications include the areas of distribution of dialectic lexis: dialectic, such as Imeretian, Gurian, Mokhevian, Kartli, Kakheti, Khevsurian and many other peculiarities of the Georgian language and its numerous dialects. According the time qualifications, the most numerous large archaic layer (about 5.850 words) are met not only in historical materials and other kinds of the old texts but the new modern lexis is also represented and this data is very interesting. There are also quite many words from the branch qualifications, for example, the terms of such branches as botany, zoology, medicine, economy, physics, chemistry and others. The stylistic qualifications are of special interest in the meaning of stylistic and emotional – expressive coloring of the lexical units: poetic and sublime, euphemistic, colloquial, figurative, familiar, disrespectful, humiliating and many others which are derived by means of Georgian suffixes: -a, -una, -ura, -uka, -ukela, -ana). In general, it is difficult to find the exact corresponding translation for the words of stylistic coloring in the bilingual dictionaries. In the case of archaic words, it is even not as necessary, because to explain the semantics of the archaic words it can be impossible to select the needed old linguistic correspondences. Right explanation of the semantics is quite enough if it is well done. Observing carefully the dictionary compiled by K. Tschenkéli, it can be concluded that the main reliable source for the author of the dictionary was the Explanatory Dictionary of the Georgian Language and the qualifications which are used in its contents. We can see in the Georgian-German Dictionary compiled by R. Zekalashvili, edited in 2009 (and the second edition in 2015), that it is mainly focused on Georgian-speaking users and the stylistic level of emotional coloring of the main words are given in Georgian such as: elevated (amagh.), colloquial (saub.), also official (of.) and so on. In case the German equivalent word is of different stylistic coloring, the information is pointes by means of rounded brackets. Discussion of the above mentioned dictionaries once again confirms that it is of great importance to denote emotional and stylistic characteristic features in order to underline the of the lexical units. This helps the users of the dictionaries to use the words correctly.
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ეძღვნება პროფესორ ფარნაოზ ერთელიშვილის დაბადებიდან მე-100 წლისთავს/ Dedicated to the 100th Birthday of Prof. Parnaoz Ertelishvili
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სამეცნიერო შრომების კრებული, ქართველური ენათმეცნიერება, IX, 2023, გვ.: 45-60/ COLLECTED SCIENTIFIC WORKS, KARTVELIAN LINGUISTICS, IX, 2023, pp.: 45-60
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