European Integration and Development of Georgian Land Transport

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Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi state university, Faculty of social and political sciences
The study deals with the perspectives of development of land transport in Georgia on the path of European integration. European integration means a broader understanding of social, political, economic, cultural and legal integration of the European states, whose main driving force is the European Union. European integration is an important factor in the development of Eastern Partnership countries. It is therefore important to know about the Association Agreement, EU Transport Strategy and ongoing reforms in Georgia's Land Transport to analyze the results of the European Integration. The study presents the development of Georgia's land transport and its role in the European integration process with regard to the transport corridor. The theme is chosen by taking into account the actuality of the issue. The decrease in passenger and freight turnover in Georgia's land transport indicates that there are problems in this sector. To solve this problems, it is necessary to search for its origins, to evade the process of evolution, and to identify the factors that are responsible for the current situation. The aim of the work and the novelty is, to study public geographical aspects of Georgia's land transport, which covered the following objectives and issues: analysis of contemporary literature around Georgia's land transport search and explanation of the causal links; Parallels between past and present are allocating the main trends and aspects that have changed. Also, it is aimed to identify the factors, that will facilitate European integration. One of the main objectives of the study is the assessment of adequacy, with respect to the aims of the actions implemented in the process of Euro- integration; Taking into account the effect of real environmental conditions, to which degree is it possible to achieve results in this direction? A systematic approach is used as a research methodology. The transport sector is considered as a single system with internal and external factors in complex and dynamic - continuous time and space. In analyzing the system of time and space, the advantages of the analysis of the secondary documents are given. Using the method of analysis, the fact is that the study of the documents should be taken into consideration with other factors identified at the same time. Also, when using the method of analyzing the document, the importance of the basic criteria (authenticity, accuracy, legitimacy, importance) of the document's validity and reliability are given. The transport location of Georgia can be viewed in the theoretical context of the location / location theory. The theory associated with the geographical location of economic activity is the most important part of economic geography, regional science and spatial economy. The Locations Theory answers questions on which economic activities are located where and why. In 2011, the European Commission issued a document titled "White Paper on Transport", which represents the core strategy of the EU in terms of transport development. The goal of the document is to prepare the European transport space in the future, to develop its competitive and sustainable transport system, for this purpose the EU's objectives are: • Increase transport and mobility at the expense of 60% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions; • Establishment of multi-modal urban travel and transport system; • Development of an effective network of continental trade and shore travel; • Clean urban transport; • Product transportation costs are minimal. Unfortunately, the interviews with transport experts show, that Georgia is still unable to fulfill its obligations. For example, the representatives of Hub Georgia stressed that the EU transport policy document is the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in Europe by 60% in comparison with 1990, but by the Paris Agreement, Georgia submitted its official document - NDC (Nationally Determined Contribution), where transport is not even mentioned.
European integration, land transport of Georgia, Georgian road transport, pipeline transport of Georgia, Georgian Railway, international transport corridor, Association Agreement, "White Paper on Transport", ევროინტეგრაცია, საქართველოს სახმელეთო ტრანსპორტი, საქართველოს საავტომობილო ტრანსპორტი, საქართველოს მილსადენი ტრანსპორტი, საქართველოს რკინიგზა, საერთაშორისო სატრანსპორტო დერეფანი, ასოცირების შეთანხმება, "ტრანსპორტის თეთრი წიგნი"