ირანის შაჰების დემოგრაფიული პოლიტიკა საქართველოს მიმართ (თურქმანული ტომების ჩამოსახლება ქვემო ქართლში)

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Date
2018
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Abstract
The migration of Turkoman tribes in Kvemo Kartli started in the second half of 15th century, during the military campaigns of Aq Qoyunlu rulers Uzun Hasan (1453-1478) and his son, Sultan Yaqub (1478-1490). They failed to establish themselves in Georgia as king of Kartli Constantine II (1478-1505) expelled them from the borders of his kingdom. According to Vakhushti Bagrationi, the king ordered to Baratashvili family and others to attack Turkomans settled on Georgian soil and they attacked newcomers wiping them out or capturing them entirely. The main goal of resettlement of Turkomans in the kingdom of Kartli by the rulers of Iran was to voilate the southern frontier of Kartli. In the 16th century pressure on the Georgians was increased by the rulers of Safavid Iran. In 1556 shah Tahmasp I (1524-1576) established the first “khanate” in Qazakh. On the basis of the latter, Shamshadilo “Khanate” was created. In 1604, with the help of shah Abbas I (1587-1629), Borchaly tribe was resettled in Kartli. Shamshadilo, Qazakh, Borchalo “khanates” and Baidari and Demurchi- Asanlu – “sultanates” – existed within territory of Kartli in 16th-18th centuries. They were under the subordination of the kings of Kartli. Their everyday occupation was nomadic pastoralism, hence, they tend to change their living places seasonaly. They had their own ruler (“khan”, “sultan” etc.). According to the documents, their seasonal movement and tax collection was implemented by mouravi and other officials appointed by the king of Kartli. The Georgian kings achieved much success in bringing those foreign migrants into the service of the local government. Their income was recorded in the royal treasury and they paid different types of taxes, also they were obliged to serve in military service of the Georgian kings. The Georgian kings and their officials were successful in attempt to impose effective control over those foreign newcomers, who were resettled in Kartli to oppose local authorities, hence Iranian shahs did not achieve their major political goal. Despite the existing differences in religion and life, Georgian kings managed to integrate them into economic, military, and political life of the country. Many of them distinguished themselves and took active part in defending and building Georgia.
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https://geohistory.humanities.tsu.ge/ge/procedings/83-shromebi/171-shromebi-14.html
Keywords
თურქმანები, ქართლი, დემოგრაფია, მიგრაცია, ირანი
Citation
ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის საქართველოს ისტორიის ინსტიტუტის შრომები, XIV, თბილისი, 2018, გვ. 191-205 / Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Institute of Georgian History Proceedings, XIV, Tbilisi, 2018, pp. 191-205
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