ტოპონიმი „ელამი“ ბიბლიის ქართულ ვერსიებში
ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა
The Bible tells the century-old history of the Jewish nation that inhabited various territories and communicated with linguistically different peoples. Hence, the Old Testament contains the names of toponyms of numerous regions. Under the influence of Hebrew, these toponyms initially appeared in the Greek translation of the Bible and, later, in other translations based on the Greek version of the Bible, including the Georgian translations. The following types of toponyms are found in the Georgian translations: 1. Local names of toponyms of Asia Minor and North Africa. These names have appeared in the Georgian versions under the influence of the Greek and Armenian translations of the Bible; 2. The Greek place-names that were well-known in the Hellenic period; 3. Greek versions of placenames formed by means of different morphological affixes. Therefore, translation of the geographical names requires a multidimensional approach. We have studied the toponyms transferred into Georgian based on different methods by means of a comparative approach, taking into account the history of each text of the Bible. We have compared the relevant textual forms of toponyms and related ethnonyms. We have focused on the technique of translation, the practice of copying and the method of glossing. It is interesting to find out which tradition of naming of toponyms was familiar to the Georgian translator and shared by the latter: Greek historiographic tradition, Greek Biblical tradition, the tradition of the country to which the toponym in question belongs, or the translator does not follow any of the above-mentioned traditions and merely follows the text, transliterating the geographical names and ethnonyms. In order to answer these questions, it is necessary to study the technology of transfer of toponyms. A toponym may be translated if its meaning is known to the translator or if an exact correlate exists in the language of translation. In other cases, the translator creates transliterated forms and tries to achieve maximum closeness to the original version. In such cases, transliteration is due to the lack of information regarding the translated segment (Tov, 1999, pp. 503-4). In the latter case, the translator is obliged to copy the original word. When analyzing the Georgian versions of Biblical toponyms, alongside with the study of translation technique, we should take into account the fact that the names containing phonemes alien to Georgian could have been changed in the process of copying. By establishing correspondence between Georgian and foreign versions, we can identify the initial version found in the Georgian translation and the reading which is close to it. We can also find out what was changed by the copier and how authentically we have preserved the initial translation. Thus, identification of the toponyms of the Georgian version of the Bible and textological research is an important task with reference to the study of the technique of transfer, the issues of origin and authenticity of translation and further history of the text. Identification of the Greek-Armenian and Georgian correlation of toponyms helps to analyze the knowledge and opinion of ancient Georgians and translators regarding the Biblical society and find out the awareness of Georgians regarding the regions and countries mentioned in the Bible. The aim of the given research was to find out which Biblical textual tradition was shared by Georgian translators when transferring the toponym Elam. Research has proved that the toponym Elam was rendered in Georgian under the influence and imitation of Greek. Regarding the technique of translation of the above-mentioned toponym in the Georgian Bible, we can conclude the following: 1. Elam is a fixed lexical equivalent used in all Georgian translations. Different readings (such as “Selonelisa“) are due to the error of the copier; 2. The Georgian versions of the Old Testament use the reading Elam/Elamite, obtained as a result of transliteration from Greek; 3. Georgian reveals a tendency of closeness to Greek; 4. At the time of translation, there was no Georgian adequate correlate for Elamite, therefore, the form was transliterated; 5. In the Georgian versions, there are no translations of the toponym or any correlates historically known to Georgians; 6. The toponym was transliterated based on its pronunciation (Αι-e → e-(lam)). As for the ethnonym, it was based on the imitation of the pronunciation and spelling (-ῖτ → ite); 7. At the time of translation, the lexical unit denoting Elam was not found in the Georgian language. It is also possible that Georgians confused Elamites with other nation/ nations, having overly general knowledge of the nations of the Middle East (e.g. Midianites). 8. During the transfer of Elam’s synonymous toponym (Ἐλυμαΐda – “Elyamadad“), the transliteration was based not on the pronunciation but on the spelling. Georgian translatoreditors were unable to identify the toponym Ἐλυμαΐda (“Elumaydas“), because they were unaware of the toponymy of Elam’s regions. Hence, they failed to establish the correspondence between Ἐλυμαΐda (“Elumayda“) and Elam. 9. Analysis of the Bible has proved that the meaning of the toponym Elam was narrowed with time. Initially (approximately in the 14th-13th centuries B.C.), the name Elam referred to the regions of Susiana and Anshan; later (approximately in the 7th-6th centuries B.C.) the name referred to Susiana only; finally (approximately in the 3rd-1st centuries B.C.), the name embraced Susa only. Thus, for Georgian translators-editors, the Bible was a reliable source for the study of the country of Elam and the history of the Elamite ethnicity. The translation was not influenced by the background knowledge of the translators. On the contrary, based on the translation, the Georgians acquired knowledge regarding Elam – one of the powerful states in the ancient Middle East. This research [PHDF-22-6557] has been supported by Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation of Georgia (SRNSFG).
ეძღვნება პროფესორ ფარნაოზ ერთელიშვილის დაბადებიდან მე-100 წლისთავს/ Dedicated to the 100th Birthday of Prof. Parnaoz Ertelishvili
სამეცნიერო შრომების კრებული, ქართველური ენათმეცნიერება, IX, 2023, გვ.: 139-160/ COLLECTED SCIENTIFIC WORKS, KARTVELIAN LINGUISTICS, IX, 2023, pp.: 139-160