კოლხეთის პოლიტიკური ისტორიისათვის პოლემონების ხანაში

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Date
2020
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Abstract
Colchis was a part of Mithridates’ (120-63 B.C.) Pontic kingdom. This status shaped political pattern of Western Georgia for centuries to come. In 40 B.C. Romans restored kingdom of Pontus with their Greek client Polemon installed as a king soon after. Strabo relates about him, and after his death, his queen Pythodoris ruling over Colchis as well. She is still alive in about 19/20 A.D. There is a gap in narrative until 38 A.D., when Caligula allotted Polemon, grandson of Polemon I and Pythodoris, son of their daughter Tryphaena, with kingdom of Pontus (and presumably, with Colchis). This gap is to be filled up using numismatics. Polemon II’s coins are divided into three groups: a) Obv. Portrait of Tryphaena, her name and title (queen); Rev. Portrait of Polemon, regnal years IZ (17), IH(18). b) Obv. Portrait of Polemon, his name and title; Rev. Portrait of Tryphaena, her name and title, sometimes, there is no portrait and name of the queen together with her title is placed in a diadem. c) Obv. Portrait of Polemon, his name and title, sometimes there is no portrait, and inscription is put in a diadem; Rev. Portrait of Emperor (Claudius, Nero), or his family member, or Tryphaena, regnal years corresponding to 49/50-62/63. Order of the groups is correct. Indeed, at the beginning Polemon is young, and Tryphaena holds real power. So, only her name appears on the coins (a). Then diarchy follows (b). From 49/50 Polemon is obviously sole ruler, we have only his name inscribed on the coins (c). Now, if we consider Tryphaena’s regnal years IZ (17), IH(18) to be reckoned from 38/39, the result will be 54/55, 55/56, i.e. temporary interruption of Polemon’s sole rule. There is no reason for this statement. Tryphaena reckoned her regnal years in different way. If it could happen like as follows: she gained real power over Pontus at the end of 38, she issued the coins (a) in this very year (38/39), and that was the 17th year of her formal rule. So, Pythodoris died in 22/23 (?). Tryphaena became formal queen as male heirs were just boys. Pontus (maybe, Colchis too) was put under the Roman guardianship. Before 38 Tryphaena lived in Cyzicus. So, the Roman garrisons could appear at the East Black Sea Coast already in 22/23-38.
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http://geohistory.humanities.tsu.ge/ge/procedings.html
Keywords
კოლხეთი, პონტო, პოლემონიდები, პითოდორისი, რომი
Citation
ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის საქართველოს ისტორიის ინსტიტუტის შრომები, XVI, თბილისი, 2020, გვ. 19-35 / Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Institute of Georgian History Proceedings, XVI, Tbilisi, 2020 pp. 19-35
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