Ethno-demographic processes and ethnic conflicts in Georgia

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Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Press
In the 1990s, the ethnic conflicts incited by Russia were directed against the secession and formation of Georgia from the Soviet Empire as an independent state. The negative consequences of these ethnic conflicts still have a negative impact on Georgia. The purpose of writing this paper was to investigate whether the ongoing ethno-demographic processes in Georgia were one of the causes of the conflict. For this purpose, based on the historical and modern statistical information related to the problem, we have established that the ongoing ethno-demographic processes in Georgia from the 19th to the 1990s cannot be the cause of ethno-conflicts. Historically, the population of Abkhazian and Ossetian nationalities lived in a better demographic situation than Georgians. According to the latest statistics of 1959-1979 years, Georgians were characterized by low birth rates and high mortality rates compared to Abkhazians and Ossetians, which led to a high natural increase in them compared to Georgians. Due to the demographic situation, Georgians had more conflict situation. It is clear that neither Abkhazians nor Ossetians had limited their demographic development. Consequently, ethno-demographic processes could not be the cause of ethnic conflicts. These conflicts were not ethno-conflicts. This was Russia’s aggression against Georgia’s state independence. After the 2008 military conflict between Russia and Georgia, Russia openly occupied Abkhazia and the Tskhinvali region, which is still under the control of Russia.
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Ethnic statistics; censuses; natural increase; ethno-demographic processes; ethnic conflicts
Economics and Business, №2, 2020, pp. 176-185