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    The firm and the digital economy
    (Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Press, 2023) Grigolaia, Nino; Mikatadze, Tsira
    Innovation is increasingly important as a tool for overcoming economic crises, sustainable development and maintaining the viability of the firm through which society strives to organize its economy. One of the main components of the innovative economy is undoubtedly the digital economy and the firm operating in it. The article discusses the essence of digitization of the economy, driving forces and diverse risks. The article also analyzes what is being done in this direction in Georgia, what kind of problems exist and what are the ways to solve them.
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    The Soviet period before the Second World War in the territorial movement of the population of Georgia
    (Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Press, 2023) Tukhashvili, Mirian; Tsibadze, Mariam
    The twenty-year Soviet period before the Second World War is characterized by the high intensity of both external and internal migration. The positive balance of foreign immigration is particularly noteworthy due to which, the significant reduction of the relative weight of the native Georgian and Abkhazian population of Georgia could be observed. In the mentioned period, on the one hand, the rapid industrial development of Georgia and the industrial traditions of the local population developed to a lesser degree then, caused the immigration of a large contingent of workers from the central regions of Russia to Georgia. On the other hand, a large-scale famine in Russia-Ukraine in the unfavorable years of 1922 and 1933, caused a large contingent of the population to move to the peripheries that enhanced the incentives to settle in Georgia. In the pre-war period, the process of urbanization of Georgia was accelerated, while the process of organized internal migration became very intense.
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    Labour market and trends labour demand changes in Georgia in the conditions of the modern global crisis
    (Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Press, 2023) Tsartsidze, Murman; Latsabidze, Natela
    At the current stage of socio-economic development of the country, overcoming unemployment, poverty and providing effective employment in Georgia remains the main task of macroeconomic policy. Despite the recent reforms and some positive changes in the direction of economic development, there are still a number of difficulties in the field of employment, which firstly are connected to the shortage of jobs across the country, and on the other hand, the shortage of highly qualified workforce is a very acute problem. At the same time, there is a noticeable lack of personnel with the necessary knowledge, skills and experience according to certain professions and specialties. This confirms the existence of a certain disbalance between the demand and supply of labour force in the labour market of Georgia. The problem is further exposed and aggravated by modern global trends related to current demographic, organizational, structural changes, large-scale labour emigration, use of new non-standard forms of employment, development of technologies and innovations. According to the mentioned situation, the systematic study of the labour market is of great importance especially in the direction of studying the actual demand for labour force, that the system of higher and professional education in the country to be properly focused on the training of personnel with relevant professions and qualifications, which will fully meet the requirements of employers for the workforce and finally eliminate the existing imbalance in the labour market. In the paper is presented an analysis of current condition of Georgian labour market, accordingly, the main problems and challenges in this field are highlighted. Special attention is paid to the depth research of trends in labour demand in the labour market of Georgia in recent years.
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    On the threat of zombification of the retroeconomy
    (Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Press, 2023) Papava, Vladimer
    The article discusses the mechanism of zombification of the economy in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. In at least some part of any economy in any country, relatively outdated technologies are being used. This part of the economy, i.e. retroeconomy, due to zombification, can most easily transformed into a necroeconomy, based on absolutely outdated technologies. In order to avoid the danger of zombifying a retroeconomy, it is necessary to change the basic principle in bankruptcy law, as a result of which the liquidation of insolvent firms through bankruptcy becomes a priority.
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    The role of women in the inclusive growth of Georgian economy
    (Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Press, 2023) Samadashvili, Ushangi
    The article substantiates that the best means of general and differentiated well-being of society in modern Georgia is inclusive economic growth, i.e. universal involvement in the economy, which is hindered by the asymmetric development of labor and entrepreneurial activity in a gender context. The purpose of the study is to use and strengthen the economic potential of women by stimulating their labor and entrepreneurial activity. On the way to the goal, the essence and significance of women's entrepreneurship in the inclusive growth of the country's economy is determined. The most important motives for starting women's entrepreneurial activities and factors hindering development have been identified. It is shown that the restrictions imposed against the spread of the pandemic and the associated economic downturn affected women more than men. Based on international experience and our own vision, proposals and recommendations have been developed to minimize and eliminate the causes and factors hindering the development of women's business, the consideration and effective implementation of which, we think, will have a strong impact on gender equality, on the activation of women's labor and entrepreneurship in Georgia, i.e. on inclusive economic growth and, accordingly, on the general and differentiated well-being of society.
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    Development prospects of post-pandemic global economy and business
    (Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Press, 2023) Shengelia, Teimuraz
    In the context of economic globalization it is important to analyze the COVID-19 pandemic there is assumption, that the pandemic may increase nationalism, isolationism and promote a retreat from economic globalization. As a counterweight to this, the pandemic is accompanied by international cooperation, as well as efforts to rebuild the economies of countries that were destroyed in the period after the Second World War. At the same time, COVID-19 has become a global governance crisis, which will change the perception and role of the crisis. The analysis reveals the uniqueness of the current pandemic, which has a negative impact not only on global supply and demand, but also on the financial system, which, due to the debt burden of many countries, is characterized by extremely high risks. The review of studies also showed that the high rate of spread of the coronavirus pandemic, both in the medical and economic contexts, is the result of globalization, and the responses of states to the pandemic are fragmented and protectionist. The practical significance of our research results lies in the possibility of expanding further research on the economy of the coronavirus. In developing the conceptual framework of an adapted, proactive economic policy aimed at minimizing the negative economic effects of the pandemic.
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    Economic challenges facing farms in the post-pandemic era
    (Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Press, 2023) Lazariashvili, Tamar
    Agriculture has always played an important role in feeding the country's population. The article examines farms in Georgia and identifies problems in this area that prevent the development of agriculture. Opportunities to reduce risk were assessed, ways to increase satisfaction with farmer support programs were identified. It is concluded that the implementation of the economic challenges of agricultural holdings is impossible without the formation of the agricultural credit system, the creation of public service structures, the uncertainty of the national market, as well as the development and implementation of an effective tax, insurance, financial system , and investment policy . The implementation of aid programs in agriculture will increase the interest and confidence of financial institutions, farmers will be provided with financial resources that will contribute to the stable development of farms. Based on the analysis of companies, conclusions are drawn about the problems in this area and recommendations for their solution are given.
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    Contemporary challenges of innovative development
    (Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Press, 2023) Lazarashvili, Tea
    Innovative development has become a necessary challenge in the conditions of modern globalization. In developed countries, state support for stimulating innovative activities is very relevant. The experience of foreign countries allows us to determine the general characteristics of innovative development, including the role of knowledge and information technology, the existence of a developed innovative infrastructure, state stimulation and support of innovative activities, creation of a favorable innovation environment, existence of a network of large corporations and small forms, innovative entrepreneurship. The article discusses the experience of developed countries in terms of innovative development and the forms and methods of state support.
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    Impact of the changes caused by the COVID-19 pandemic on consumer behavior and the importance of communication strategy
    (Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Press, 2023) Gvenetadze, Tamar
    It is a well known fact that consumer behavior is constantly changing and companies need to be able to adapt to innovations and ensure supply according to the demand. The fears and anxieties of the current economic and social crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic clearly affect both social behavior in general and buying behavior as well. It is important to find effective ways of informing and communicating with consumers, as it provides customers the latest and highly accurate information that will help them while making decisions. It will be easier for customers to make purchasing decisions if they will be provided with the needed information of an accurate kind. Communication is essential both to satisfy interest in times of risk and uncertainty such as COVID-19, and to unable the decision making process and empower customers to select the best possible alternative. Factors such as the quality of the information disseminated, the channels of transmission, the reliability of the source, as well as the structure of the perception of information by the recipients should be taken into account during the communication process. The benefit of the AIDA communication model in times of crisis situations like COVID-19 is important since it helps companies to establish superior communication with the target segment.
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    Ownership and management relationship issues (research core points)
    (Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Press, 2023) Beridze, Teimuraz
    The property (property relations) had always occupied the minds of people and determined their actions for centuries. This phenomenon is interdisciplinary and represents the subject of economic and legal disciplines. From the point of view of law (jurisprudence), property in the first place means the ownership of an object by a particular subject, which is fixed through a legal document (act). The construction of “appropriation-possession-disposal-use”, which has more legal weight is also in use. From the standpoint of economic science, ownership is primarily relationships, a result in which the material welfare is created which should provide income (profit). A particular aspect of property is its “diversity”. The logic of the development of property relations dictates that the dominant can be only one form of property, around which there are built other forms of property (under capitalism – private property, which is implemented by means of various forms (stock, group, individual), under socialism – nationwide, which is implemented through the form of state property. An important aspect of the analysis of property is the correlation of its form with the efficiency of its functioning. The none of the forms of property don’t automatically lead to the increase in production efficiency and effectiveness of economy in general. The Interaction between Economics & Politics is stressed as well. The special role of government in the economy is emphasized (particularly in the process combating with COVID-19).
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    Statistical trends of labor compensation in the field of business in terms of administrative regions of Georgia
    (Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Press, 2023) Gelashvili, Simon; Khabeishvili, Teona
    The article presents a comparative statistical analysis of wages in the business sector in the administrative regions of Georgia (including for the period of the Covid-19 pandemic). The purpose of the article is to use statistical methods to estimate the elasticity of the average salary to the economic shock caused by the pandemic and to analyze its impact on the regional trends of the average salary change. Based on the comparative analysis, the peculiarities and changed trends in the administrative regions of the country before and during the pandemic have been established and evaluated the directions of the average salary changes have been analyzed based on the official statistical data of 2010- 2021. Many statistical methods are widely used in the article, such as: relative, average and variance indicators, as well as time series and data presentation methods. Many indicators calculated through them are presented in the form of group and combination tables, as well as diagrams and graphs. On the basis of comparative statistical analysis, the regions with high and low wage rates and also the absolute magnitude of inequality between them are established. Accordingly, 3 groups of regions with low, medium and high indicators of labor remuneration are presented.
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    Georgian economy in post-pandemic period
    (Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Press, 2023) Sirbiladze, Rusudan
    The study discusses the economic situation of Georgia, caused by a pandemic named covid-19, It put serious imprint on the economy. How to eliminate negative consequences. Georgia must overcome the crisis situation. Help the market economy to expand economic capabilities.
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    The European Union's new approach to industrial policy
    (Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Press, 2023) Gvelesiani, Revaz; Gogorishvili, Irina
    The EU has always understood that its current prosperity is based on the ability of a regional association to create and master industrial innovations as a key factor in ensuring economic growth and social progress. Today, industrial innovation is the main driver of economic and social prosperity. They accelerate economic growth, create new and more attractive jobs, provide social mobility, prevent negative climate change and improve the quality of life. At the same time, the very nature of industrial innovation is changing. Their life cycle is drastically reduced. Complexity is increasing as a result of the convergence of different types of technologies. Profits from industrial innovations are concentrated in the hands of individual companies that dominate the world market, which have managed to monopolize their creation and distribution through the use of their unique properties. Innovations are increasingly focused on the buyer, who is looking not for a product or service, but for a solution to his specific problem. He acts today as the initiator and creator of progress, and not as a consumer of what has been achieved. Research scientists show that modern industrial innovations are characterized by relatively low operating costs compared to traditional ones.
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    Changes of online consumer behavior in the fast food market in post- pandemic conditions
    (Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Press, 2023) Todua, Nugzar; Ivaniadze, Mate
    The article discusses the characteristics of online consumer behavior of fast food services and products in post-pandemic conditions. The main trends observed in the post-Covid-19 pandemic period are highlighted. Changes in the fast food market under conditions of uncertainty are shown and the increased role of e-commerce websites in the activities of organizations operating in this direction is analyzed. Based on the above, various factors affecting the behavior of online consumers are shown, which in the post-pandemic period influence their purchase decision-making process. The article emphasizes the fact that in the post-pandemic stage, people will more actively purchase fast food products and services through electronic means. That is why the digital marketing strategies selected by leading companies in this direction are discussed in the paper.
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    Challenges of social media marketing in the healthcare industry
    (Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Press, 2023) Todua, Nia
    The paper examines the role of social media in healthcare. It shows the main challenges that the representatives of the health sector are facing today. The main focus was on the adoption of digital marketing technologies in healthcare. The modern vision of social media marketing and the opinions of various scientists about the use of social media marketing in health care are formulated. As a result of the analysis of literary materials, the features of the use of social media marketing in the post-covid period are described, taking into account the change in the behavior of consumers in healthcare. The paper shows that the active use of social media marketing strategies in health care will help to overcome the difficulties caused by the pandemic of COVID-19 in the field of medical services.
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    Competitiveness of Georgian agro-food products in the European Union market
    (Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Press, 2023) Talikadze, Nino
    Research on the export agro-food products and the evaluation of its level of competitiveness will play an important role in determining the optimal export potential and local production priorities. The high competitiveness of agro-food products will be one of the cornerstones of the country's food security. And the supply of competitive agro-food products to the domestic and international markets will contribute to the future development of production. The purpose of the research is to determine the level of competitiveness of Georgian export agro-food products and to determine its role in the assessment of export potential. Competitiveness assessment of the export agro-food product was carried out for the EU market. The conclusions expressed by the researcher are supported by the observation of the research product over a period of 16 years and the calculation of relevant indices. The methods of analysis, synthesis, comparison, deduction and induction were used for the present study. The article is an analysis of theory and empirics. Competitiveness of agro-food products was evaluated based on revealed comparative advantage (RCA), trade balance normalization, trade intensity index. All data processed by the author. Research agro-food products were selected, on the one hand, taking into account which agro-food products are being exported at the current stage, and on the other hand, which agro-food products can be exported.
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    Evaluative indicators and their impact on the reliability of financial statement information
    (Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Press, 2023) Sreseli, Nana; Chavleshvili, Nino
    The article discusses the theoretical and practical aspects of determining the impact of evaluation indicators on the reliability of financial reporting. Valuation indicators are the determination of the value of assets and liabilities in the current conditions of economic activity. When preparing financial statements, in some cases it is inevitable not to accurately reflect the events, but to take into account professional judgment and approximate estimation models based on analytical reasoning and available information, in such conditions, the financial statements reflect estimates formed due to probable uncertainty or lack of accurate estimation. Such values are called estimates and are based on the approaches and concepts established in the conceptual foundations of financial reporting. Despite the fact that due to objective circumstances, it is impossible to develop an ideal financial statement corresponding to the conceptual foundations, it is still of crucial importance to prepare it in such a way as to improve the quality of usefulness of financial statements. The article discusses the basis of the generation of evaluative indicators and their impact on the usefulness of general purpose financial statements. The work also presents issues regulated by International Accounting Standards (IAS) and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), which relate to the assessment and revaluation of reserves in own capital.
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    Global causes of poverty and challenges for small open economies
    (Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Press, 2023) Mikiashvili, Nino
    Social problems are diverse, but among them, poverty is perceived as particularly acute both locally and globally. The causes and manifestations of poverty in a particular time and space are somewhat different from each other. The work focuses on the global causes of poverty, which mainly lead to economic inequality in the modern world. Because extreme poverty, unfortunately, is incurable throughout the world. According to 2022 data, one in ten people live in extreme poverty because: income is unevenly distributed and there are significant social barriers; Conflict and violence most affect economically disadvantaged people; Hunger, malnutrition and stunting prevent normal conditions in adulthood; The health system is failing, especially for mothers and children; there is no clean water, sanitation and hygiene facilities; Climate change is an additional pressure; Educational opportunities are limited; Poor infrastructure and basic services cannot (or will not) be received; Less support from the state; It is difficult to find a job and a livelihood, and finally, there are no savings (reserves) in this layer. The manifestation of these global causes is especially acute in economically less developed countries that cannot provide internal resources to overcome the severity of the causes of poverty, which requires targeted, systematic, systemic actions.
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    The necessity of fiscal consolidation and current challenges in Georgia in post pandemic period
    (Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Press, 2023) Mikeladze, Nino
    After increasing fiscal deficit during Covid-19 pandemic, due to higher social spending and lower budget revenues, fiscal consolidation is crucial in the post-pandemic period, which means fiscal policy tightening. The current challenges come from the organic law, that increase of taxes is possible only after the referendum. So, this instrument does not make fiscal policy flexible and attention goes to the expenditures. Besides, consolidation through current spending supports economic growth, while reduction of capital spending might obstruct growth.
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    Tourism industry in Georgia in the post-pandemic period
    (Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Press, 2023) Khutsishvili, Niko
    Tourism is one of the world's fastest growing industries. In 2020, due to the Covid-19 pandemic, governments had to impose regulations that negatively affected tourism. The article discusses the state of tourism in Georgia and the world in the post-pandemic period. The vaccination process and the development of a proper disease control strategy by the medical field made it possible for the regulations to be lifted and the tourism industry to almost fully recover. Today, tourism in Georgia has almost completely recovered. As a result of the processing of statistical data, conclusions and recommendations were obtained, for which the data of the National Bank of Georgia, the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia, the World Tourism Organization and other organizations were used.