ბრძანებითის ზმნურ ფორმათა შესახებ ბაგრატ ბატონიშვილის სამზარეულოს წიგნში

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Date
2023
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ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა
Abstract
Prince Bagrat’s cookery book was published in the Georgian language in St. Petersburg in 1818. This book, which is a collection of cooking recipes, embraces instructive texts. Since, in the majority of cases, the directions of cooking express the action to be performed, the text under analysis abounds in affirmative imperative forms of action verbs addressed to the second person singular. Taking into account the period in which the collection was published, it is not surprising that the book contains diverse examples of language norms. This diversity is also notable in the formation of the second person imperative. The text contains parallel forms peculiar of both Old and New Georgian: unmarked and marked forms of the Simple Past, i.e. the forms where the marker ი /i/ does not function (დააჭერ /daacher/– დააჭერი /daacheri/ (cut)). Out of these forms, the unmarked forms are more dominant; forms with endings -ევ /-ev/ and -ე /-e/ (ჩააგდევ /chaagdev/ / ჩააგდე /chaagde/ (drop)); past forms with suffix -ივ /-iv/ (derived from the present tense suffix -ევ /-ev/ – ევ /ev/ > ივ /iv/); forms with both preserved and lost ვ- /v/ (არჩევ /archev/ – დაარჩივე /daarchive/ / დაარჩიე /daarchie/ (sort out)). Verbs with base-marker -ობ /-ob/, which have preserved the stem consonant ვ /v/ in the New Georgian, are found in the text under analysis without the consonant ვ /v/ (აცხობ / atskhob/ – გამოაცხე /gamoatskhe/ (bake), აწყობ /atskob/ – ჩააწყე /chaatske/ (put), cf. New Georgian: აცხობ /atskhob/ – გამოაცხვე /gamoatskhve/ (bake), აწყობ /atskob/ – ჩა- აწყვე /cahaatskve) (put). The subject and object person markers are used non-systematically and excessively. Almost all the recipes in Prince Bagrat’s collection are of the same structure and usually start with the verb „მოიღე“ /moighe/ (take), which is always given in the singular form like other instructive verbs. In Barbare Jorjadze’s cookery book, the texts of recipes start in diverse ways, but the verb „მოღება“ /mogheba/ (take) is also frequent there. However, in Jorjadze’s book, this verb is given in the plural form „მოიღეთ“ /moighet/ (take), and is sometimes replaced by the verb „აიღეთ“ /aighet/ (take). Other imperative verbs in Barbare Jorjadze’s book are also given in the plural form. The verb „მოღება“ /mogheba/ had numerous meanings in Old Georgian (bring, get, take, deprive of, take off/skim). In contemporary Georgian, this verb is found only in set expressions: „ბოლოს მოღება“ /bolos mogheba/ (to put an end to something) and „მოწყალების მოღება“ /motskalebis mogheba/ (give alms). In the culinary discourse of the 19th century, the verb მოღება /mogheba/ means “to take”. Prince Bagrat’s collection of recipes was published 56 years later than Barbare Jorjadze’s book. It is undoubtedly interesting to compare these books not only with reference to the imperative forms but also in numerous other aspects, since they represent two important sources of the linguocultural data of the 19th century.
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ეძღვნება პროფესორ ფარნაოზ ერთელიშვილის დაბადებიდან მე-100 წლისთავს/ Dedicated to the 100th Birthday of Prof. Parnaoz Ertelishvili
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სამეცნიერო შრომების კრებული, ქართველური ენათმეცნიერება, IX, 2023, გვ.: 99-105/ COLLECTED SCIENTIFIC WORKS, KARTVELIAN LINGUISTICS, IX, 2023, pp.: 99-105
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