რწმენა-წარმოდგენებთან დაკავშირებული ზოგიერთი პრაქტიკის შესახებ სამეგრელოში ("ხვამა": "ოხვამერი" და "დუნაპირი")

Abstract
Some practices connected with faith and beliefs have been preserved in Samegrelo up today. Their collective name is “Khvama”. “Khvama” is a specific ritual with semi-sacred and semi-practical function. Its main purpose was to deal with different necessities of family, village or other communities. Therefore, different types of “Khvama” exist depending on their role. Special research dedicated to this issue was conducted by Sergi Makalatia around 80 years ago and no other research have been done till today. The scholar paid attention only to the general description of the ritual and he has not given some specific details. Also, he did not mention the differences between two major types of “Khvama” – “Okhvameri” and “Dunapiri”. Main purpose of our research was to fulfill this gap. Major purpose of our research was to answer the following questions: 1) what are the similarities and differences between “Okhvameri” (annually celebrated ritual) and “Dunapiri” (ritual conducted just once) – some aspects concerning terminology, faith, beliefs and practices; 2) which “Khvama” described by Makalatia is “Okhvameri” and which one is “Dunapiri”; 3) how “Dunapiri” ritual was practiced; 4) what rituals Sergi Makalatia omitted and did not describe; 5) what was the main purpose of each ritual; 6) to what extent practices of these rituals remained in Samegrelo, what are continuities and what changed over time. Comparative analysis was conducted based on previously well researched examples in Sergi Makalatia’s work and on our new materials; 7) how these rituals survived atheistic period of soviet rule; 8) what is the anthropological perspective of the region – to what extent it is possible that these rituals will be conducted in its authentic form in the near future and what are the challenges that threaten their preservation. While “Okhvameri” is annually celebrated ritual (not festival) accompanied with some appraisal of non-denominated god or icons/saints (?), “Dunapiri” usually is a ritual conducted only in case if someone ‘gave the word’ to the god/icon/saint (?) that he/she will sacrifice animal in exchange of some past or future favor. Rituals described by Sergi Makalatia are mostly “Okhvameri”. Since practices of these rituals remained the same and have not lost their authenticity over these 80 years, other rituals omitted by Makalatia and described by us, supposedly more or less bear their initial forms. Major reason why these rituals survived soviet era is formal homage paid to the government, for example, in one village locals ruined the church but continued annual animal sacrifice at the oak-tree as they did before. Even today it is hard to predict whether strengthened Christianity or globalization will affect the rituals. Anyway, major point is that these issues are very urgent to study and that is why we decided to conduct our work.
Description
https://geohistory.humanities.tsu.ge/ge/procedings/83-shromebi/169-shromebi-12.html
Keywords
ხვამა, ოხვამერი, წინარექრისტიანული, დუნაპირი, სამეგრელო, რიტუალი
Citation
ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის საქართველოს ისტორიის ინსტიტუტის შრომები, XII, თბილისი, 2017, გვ. 427-456 / Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Institute of Georgian History Proceedings, XII, Tbilisi, 2017, pp. 427-456
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