ზოგი უ- ‒ -ო სახელურფუძიანი ოკაზიური ზმნური ფორმის შესახებ „ვეფხისტყაოსანში“

Abstract
In the poem “The Knight in Panther’s Skin”, Shota Rustaveli created numerous occasional forms, revealing the expressive capacity of the Georgian language. Out of such occasional forms in the poem, special mention should be made of occasional verb-forms with nominal stems and circumfix u-‒-o: učumoda, udidoda, umxneoda. Scholarly literature focuses on the qualification of “učumoda”, interpreting this word differently and offering diverse principles of segmentation; namely: 1. Bipersonal intransitive verb, where u- is the marker of the objective version, and -od the suffix denoting a continuous tense (an imperfect screeve). 2. The initial form is učumo; the entire verb is monopersonal, past continuous tense (imperfect screeve) form, and - d- is the suffix denoting the continuous tense (the imperfect screeve); učumoda type of formation is also represented in the poem by other forms like udidoda, umxneoda: the nominal stems u d i d o and u m x n e o are added by circumfix u- ‒ -o yielding the continuous tense (the imperfect screeve) forms of the verbs. učumoda could be Compound predicate too: where učumod- is the nominal element, whereas -a is the short form of the link verb „is“: -a ←aris “is” (cf: udidod-a, umxneod- a). The authors of the given paper share the opinion that the verbforms under analysis are derived from nominal stems with the circumfix u- ‒ -o. However, the function of the suffix -d is viewed differently: this suffix is considered as an element which forms verbs from nominal stems. Verbs formed from nominal parts of speech with the suffix -d are quite frequent in the poem; there are about 80 nominal stems of this kind, out of which the most frequent are adjectives. The verbs formed from nominal stems by means of the suffix -d are quite informative, therefore, the poet uses them for the purpose of adding expression to the content. Analysis of verses containing the above-mentioned verb forms has proved that derivation by means of suffix -d is a component of artistic parallelism as well as a rhyming unit. It should be noted that the verbal lexeme with suffix -d is given in the negative form. Negation is achieved by: a nominal stem denoting absenceora nominal stem denoting absence and a negative particle “not”. A verb expressed in such way comes the second in the line, after its preceding positive form. The relation between the two is that of 1. C o n t r a s t: adidebda ‒ učumoda / “glorified” ‒ “*učumoobda” / “without noise”: (the stem čum- is given in its old meaning, denoting “noise”). “ze amovǯe, mepisagan ḳaci dia movidoda, axarebdes: “ amoǯdao”, dedopali gamorboda; mepe morbis tav-šišveli, ar icoda, ras ikmoda, igi γmertsa adidebda, sxva velai učumoda”. (Rustaveli, 2002, p. 106, # 361). “I set up . . . Many men were come from the king, they carried back the good news: ‘He sits up!’ The queen ran in, the king came running bareheaded, he knew not what he did, he glorified God (while) all others were silent” (Wardrop, 1966, p. 90, # 343)1 Rhyming units: movidoda “would come” / gamorboda “ran in” /ras ikmoda “what was he doing” / učumoda “without noise, silently”. 2. S y n o n y m y: a) vizaxdi ‒ ar udidoda / “I shouted”‒“[xma] ismoda ar(a) *udidod”= “[voice]was heard far and wide”. “navita gave, zγvisagan šṭo rame gamovidoda. ar amovhḳrepdi gamopta, vtkvi, čemta rad davhrido, da-? dameӡabunnes, simravle me mati ar gamvidoda, vnadirobdi da vizaxdi, xma čemi ar udidod-a”. (Rustaveli, 2002, p. 178, # 609). “I went by ship; from the sea came forth a creek. I gathered not those divided from me; I said to myself: “Why should I take precautions against mine own folk?” They seemed timid to me; their multitude appeared not. I hunted and hallooed; I withheld not my voice” (Wardrop, 1966, p. 141, # 586). Rhyming units: gamovidoda “would come out” / rad davhrido, da- “whay avoid it” da- [preverb from the same verb, used to reinforce meaning] / ar gamvidoda “I did not warry” / ar udidoda “not small, big”. b) gahmagreboda ‒ ar umxneoda / “stood firm” ‒“did not lose courage”. „vardi neboda, γvreboda, alvisa šṭo irxeoda, broli da lali gatlili lažvardad gardikceoda; gahmagreboda siḳvdilsa, amistvis ar umxneod-a, iṭvis, tu: „bneli ras miḳvirs, ratgan davagde mzeo, da-!“ (Rustaveli, 2002, p. 281, # 963). “The rose is faded, it drips, the branch of the aloe-tree quivers, the cut crystal and ruby are changed into lapis-lazuli. He strengthened himself against death; against him it vaunted not itself. He said: “Why should I wonder at darkness since thou, O sun, hast abandoned me!”(Wardrop, 1966, p.214, # 934). Rhyming units: irxeoda “was quivering” / gardikceoda “was becoming” / ar umxneoda “not weak, vigorous” / mzeo,da- “O sun, da- [preverb from the previous verb davagde “I left her”, used to reinforce thought]. As for the tense (the screeve), verbs with nominal stems, added by suffix -d usually express the Simple Past Tense (the Aorist), but the lexemes under analysis pertain to the Past Continuous / Imperfect. Besides the acoustic impression created by the verballyformed suffix - od (o- stem noun + suffix -d), there are two major nuances: 1.These forms do not have a verbal prefix (a preverb); 2. The forms themselves have a continuous meaning; hence, they are easily combined with the preceding verbal lexemes denoting the Past Continuous Tense (Imperfect Screeve).
Description
Keywords
ოკაზიური ზმნური ფორმები, „ვეფხისტყაოსანი“, სახელური ფუძე, უწყვეტელი, წყვეტილი, Occasional verb-forms, “The Knight in Panther’s Skin”, nominal stem, imperfect, aorist
Citation
სამეცნიერო სესია, მიძღვნილი აკადემიკოს ვარლამ თოფურიას ხსოვნისადმი, მასალები, თბილისი, 08.01.2022, გვ. 41-48 /Scientific Session Dedicated to the Memory of Academician Varlam Topuria, Proceedings, Tbilisi, 08.01.2022, pp. 41-48