რიჰარდ მეკელაინი და პირველი თაობის ქართული ემიგრაცია ბერლინში

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2018
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ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა
Abstract
The given paper is dedicated to Dr. Richard Meckelein (*1880, Arnstein/Bavaria – †1948 Berlin), German linguist and public figure, specialist in Slavonic, Balcan and Caucasian languages, Professor of Friedrich-Wilhelms University and the Technical University of Berlin. The name of Dr. Richard Meckelein is unfamiliar even among the circles of Georgian specialists of German, to say nothing of the society at large. My interest in his personality is determined by several factors: • Meckelein’s linguistic works: anthologies dedicated to the languages under research, dictionaries and grammar books, out of which, from the Georgian perspective, special mention should be made of Georgian-German Wordbook (Richard Meckelein, 1928: Georgisch-Deutsches Wörterbuch. Berlin/Leipzig: De Gruyter, 565 Seiten) and The Textbook of the German Language, appended with a reader and glossary, specifically aimed at Georgian learners (Meckelein, Richard, 1922: Einführung in die deutsche Sprache für Georgier. Nebst Chrestomathie und Wörterbuch. Bearbeitet von Richard Meckelein, Dozent am Seminar für orientalische Sprachen an der Universität Berlin. Berlin: Kultur-Verlagsgesellschaft m.b.H. „Naher Osten“ ); • Meckelein’s personal contacts and professional cooperation with the representatives of the first generation of Georgian emigrants in Berlin in the 1920s: Orientalist Professor Dr. Mikheil (Mikhako) Tsereteli, Historian Grigol Diasamidze, medical doctor Iakob Khocholava, founder of “Naher Osten” publishing house Ivane Varazashvili. Mention should also be made of Meckelein’s relationships with the Georgian prisoners of the First World War. Meckelein considered them as direct targets of his language textbook; • Meckelein’s translation activities. Together with Kathe Rosenberg, he translated Grigol Robakidze’s “Caucasian Short Stories” from Georgian into German (Grigol Robakidze, Kaukasische Novellen. Magische Quellen, Die Tötung des heiligen Stieres, Der Imam Schamyl. Mit Vorwort des Verfassers. Übertragen von Käthe Rosenberg und Richard Meckelein. 4. (von 4) Auflage. 21. - 30. Tsd. Leipzig. 1943). The research is based on the materials depicting Richard Meckelein’s life and activities. These materials are preserved in Germany, namely, at Humboldt University in Berlin, Zehlendorf Museum of Local History, book depositories and archives of the universities of Frankfurt-am-Main and Bonn. The study is also based on the scanty information preserved in the Georgian scources. I have attempted to restore facts from Richard Meckelein’s life in chronoloigical order and describe them more or less thoroughly within the German-Georgian comparative context. For certain reasons, Richard Meckelein’s heritage has not been thoroughly studied and catalogued even in Germany. Therefore, the research is based solely on the documents represented in depositories before the year 2017. Taking into account the existing situation, I have structured the given paper in such a way that it focuses on Meckelein’s biography as well as the histroical background of his epoch, which conditioned Meckelein’s interest in the Georgian language and gave him an impetus to contribute to German-Georgian cultural relationships. The publisher’s note as well as the Georgian and German prefaces written by Meckelein himself, reveal several interesting historical details. The publisher’s note is signed by Grigol Diasamidze and Iakob Khocholava. They mention with great respect the founder of the publishing-house, philanthrophist and entrepreneur Ivane Varazashvili. A group of Georgian intellectual emigrants visited Ivane Varazashvili and proposed the idea of establishing the Georgian-German publishing house. They were delighted when Ivane Varazashvili accepted the idea with great pleasure, as he had also dreamt of establishing such publishing house. The aim of the publishing house was to support and enhance Georgian-German cultural links and help establish better relationships between the two nations. The publisher’s note mentions Richard Meckelein with great reverence. Meckelein’s manual of the German language was the first official declaration made by the publishing house „Naher Osten“. The publisher expressed his hope that the young author would further contribute to the promotion of the Georgian language and culture. The above-mentioned manual is also significant for the following reason: it was compiled in the 20s of the past century for the aesthetic-cognitive purpose rather than out of mere necessity. Its aim was to help young prisoners of war retain contacts with the German language and cultural realia even after returning to their motherland. In the preface, Meckelein expresses his gratitude to the publisher Ivane Varazashvili, orientalist, specialist in the Sumerian language and Professor Mikheil Tsereteli, who edited the Georgian part of the textbook and made interesting comments. The book was published in Germany three times, in the years 1922, 1924 and 1931. This proves that there was high demand for the coursebook. It is a pity that the book is not known in Georgia and it is not registered on the electronic catalogue of the National Parliamentary Library of Georgia. It may be assumed that the former professors of Tbilisi State University – the late Pavle Iashvili (*1894 Somitso/Oni district – †1989 Tbilisi) and Niko Kadagidze (*1895 upper Alvani /Akhmeta District – †1973 Tbilisi) – were aware of the textbook. The period of their university education in Germany (1922–1926) coincides with the dates of publication of Meckelein’s work. The study of archive materials is an endless process. Thus, it is quite possible that yet unknown facts from Meckelein’s biography will emerge in future. These facts may be related to the Caucasian prisoners of World War I, whose audio records are preserved at Humboldt Library Audio Archive. I am currently researching these records in cooperation with Dr. Heike Liebau, scientific worker of Berlin Center of Modern Orient. We hope, the obtained results will be presented to the Georgian public in the nearest future. As for Meckelein’s Textbook of the German Language for Georgian Learners, as well as his Georgian-German Wordbook, both these works deserve special linguo-didactic investigation.
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ქართულ-გერმანული ურთიერთობები, ქართული ემიგრაცია
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ცივილიზაციური ძიებანი, №16, 2018, გვ.: 26-35/ Civilization Researches, №16, 2018, pp.: 26-35
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