მეტროპოლიტენ მუზეუმის სპილოს ძვლის ფირფიტის ჯვარცმის უნიკალური იკონოგრაფია X საუკუნის მეორე ნახევრის ბიზანტიის იმპერიალური იდეოლოგიის კონტექსტში. UNIQUE ICONOGRAPHY OF AN IVORY CRUCIFIXION PLAQUE AT THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART IN THE CONTEXT OF BYZANTINE IMPERIAL IDEOLOGY IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE X CENTURY

Abstract
The rapid military successes of the Muslims, who at the beginning of the eight century were able to subdue the lands of the Middle East and North Africa posed a great threat to the Byzantine Empire. The Empire’s failed attempt to regain territories lost in the wars demonstrated the weakness of Byzantine war ideology and the need to revise the concept of war. A changed ideology was formed by the end of the IX century, during the rule of the Macedonian dynasty, and especially during the reign of Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogennetus (945-959). The changes in rhetoric had a reflection in Byzantine visual media. The religious iconography underwent a significant conceptual change and acquired a semantic meaning of war. The paper analyzes Byzantine ivory plaque from the Metropolitan Museum of Art, which is only surviving portion of a triptych whose wings are now missing. The plaque’s iconography is unique among the surviving Byzantine representations of the Crucifixion and no other related images survive. While the crucified Christ, Virgin, St John and the two angels are frequent elements of the iconography of Crucifixion, there are unusual iconographic details. First of all is unique depiction of the reclining figure at the foot of the cross whose belly is pierced by Christ’s cross. The scholarly discussion has been concentrated on this remarkable innovation. Some identified it as Hades- the god of the underworld, another as Adam-a usual image of the Crucifixion iconography. The paper will off er a new analyze of this unique iconography. It will show that to decipher its complex visual syntax, it is necessary to understand the components of the composition as a whole system, as well as to take into account the historical and political context in which such changes in the crucifixion iconography were made. The paper offers a new opinion on the date and the possible donor of the ivory plaque.
Description
Keywords
ბიზანტია, ომი, იდეოლოგია, ჯვარცმა, X საუკუნე, Byzantium, war, ideology, crucifixion, X century
Citation
ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტი ჰუმანიტარულ მეცნიერებათა ფაკულტეტი, აკადემიკოს მარიამ ლორთქიფანიძის დაბადებიდან 100 წლის იუბილესადმი მიძღვნილი XVI საფაკულტეტო სამეცნიერო კონფერენცია, თეზისები, თბილისი, 2022, გვ.: 229-234 / Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Faculty of Humanities, 16th FACULTY SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE IN HONOUR OF THE 100th ANNIVERSARY OF THE BIRTH OF MARIAM LORTKIPANIDZE, Abstracts, Tbilisi, 2022, pp.: 229-234