კათოლიკური რესტავრაცია და თანამედროვე ეკლესიის მმართველობის სისტემის შექმნა. სიქსტუს V

Abstract
The ecclesiastical apparatus that the Vatican has used to govern the Catholic world has determined the Vatican’s great political and diplomatic importance throughout its two-year history, so we must consider the Catholic Church’s hierarchical-administrative system in light of the religious apparatus’s great importance. The Secretary of State, the College of Cardinals, and the Congregation are the three primary components of the Roman Catholic Church’s executive branch. They all silently obey the Pope and rely on his boundless power. Cardinals have a crucial role in the Catholic Church’s organizational structure. The Catholic Church’s operations are diverse and encompass a wide range of topics. The Vatican, like all public administrations, has a number of separate ministries known as Congregations. Each congregation is governed by a cardinal, prefect (minister) appointed by the Pope. In some cases, the pope serves as prefect himself. The Roman Congregations were founded in the 16th century and are associated with the name of Sixtus V, who is considered to be the founder of the Vatican Cardinal Curia. The 16th century was a pivotal period in world history, marked by political, religious, economic, and social upheavals.The Reformation that began in Germany reshaped Europe and posed a threat to the Catholic Church. Popes reacted with a counter-reformation, which was followed by bloodshed. The Resolutions of the World Ecclesiastical Council of Trident (1545-1563) enhanced the Counter-Reformation by intensifying the persecution of Protestants.The only concession was the abolition of indulgences by the Catholic Church. The Catholic Church’s lone concession was the removal of indulgences. The Society of Jesus, together with the Austrian and Spanish Habsburgs, transformed ecclesiastical conservative reform into militant and violent counter-reform, with its primary strongholds being the Universities of Vienna and Prague. as its main strongholds. They taught a counter-Reformation elite there, who eventually began the conversion of Protestant monarchs and princes. As a result, a number of countries (Poland, Spain, Portugal, the Czech Republic, and Italy) have reverted to Catholicism. Germany was split in two: northern Germany remained Protestant, while southern Germany reverted to Catholicism. During the reign of Felice Peretti di Montalto, who rose to the throne as Sixtus V, the Catholic Restoration achieved its pinnacle (1585-1590). He actively promoted the Counter-Reformation; he excommunicated Henry Bourbon (1585. later Henry IV) and Elizabeth I Tudor (1587). The Pope’s ecclesiastical reforms, which included the creation of a specialized Congregational structure, bolstered the Church of Rome’s centralism and the Pope’s absolute power. „ The Immense Aeterni Dei” was founded on January 22, 1588, with 15 congregations. Ten of them were included in the five-pope governing body’s unified system of ecclesiastical government. During the liquidation of the Pope’s state in 1870, this structure underwent significant changes for the first time. And then as a result of the reform carried out by Pope Pius X (1903-1914). Sixtus V founded a congregation of universities, seminaries, and research institutes in 1588. The purpose was to supervise education in the Popes region first and then to extend its control to Catholic universities in Austria, France, Italy and other nations. During this time, he is in charge of all Catholic-run higher education institutions. The ecclesiastical congregations founded following the Trident congregation were likewise restructured. In 1588, the Pope established the Congregation of the Consistory, which he led and was involved in the Holy Inquisition’s operations. Sixtus V granted a dictatorial mandate to the Congregation for the Prohibition of Books, founded by Pius V. Sixtus V founded the Sacred Congregation for Rites which dealt canonization of saints. Sixtus was the first to define the cardinals’ powers in terms of the idea of centralism. On December 3, 1586, he issued the Bull of „Pastquam Verus Ille”, which set the number of cardinals at 70. John XXIII was the first person to surpass this figure in 1958. Nepotism has taken on other forms as well. The term “nepotism” no longer applied to the entire family. The Pope chose the two most gifted individuals and groomed them to become cardinals. One of them was the Secretary-General. The second relative is in charge of the ecclesiastical state’s economic affairs. Sixtus V significantly bolstered the Nuncio, a key figure in the Vatican’s foreign policy. Financial governance was also affected by the reform, resulting in the Pope’s coffers being replenished. Agriculture and industry, silk cultivation, and trade expansion were all priorities for him. Sixtus V’s pontificate was highlighted by a vigorous campaign against crime in Rome, tax reform, and the establishment of financial institutions and manufactories. He favored culture and art that underwent tremendous transformations. The Renaissance has almost vanished. Baroque has become an adequate direction of Catholic restoration and counter-reformation in art. Pope absolutism put art totally at its service; although art controlled the popes throughout the Renaissance, this has now reversed. During the Renaissance, art was the furthest apart from the church, but it is today the closest to it. The Pope was personally involved in the translation of the Church Fathers’ works from Greek, and he is the author of the work of Saint Ambrose of Milan. Grand construction began in Rome under the reign of Sixtus V, with the active participation of Domenico Fontana, the city’s favorite architect: the Eternal City was beautified with new buildings, streets and squares were arranged, and four fountains were built on the quarter. The pope authorized the installation of obelisks in front of the main temples, which had been imported from Egypt during the Roman era and left in the remains of imperial residences. In 1586, a pagan Egyptian obelisk was removed from Nero’s circus and installed in the center of St. Peter’s Square on which Sixtus carved the fol lowing words: “Christus Vivit, Christus Regnat, Christus Imperat (“Christ conquers, Christ reigns, Christ commands)”. The dome of St. Peter’s Basilica was completed; the Vatican Library and Printing House were built; the Trajan and Antonius Pius arches were renovated and restored; and a new water supply – Aqua Felice was established. Sixtus V personally patronized the work of an Italian poet Torqvato Tasso (1544-1595), best known for the poem “Liberated Jerusalem” Sixtus’ grave is in the Chapel of Sixtus, which was built by Domenico Fontana in the Cathedral of Santa Maria Maggiore. he chapel has a dome with opulent decorations. Bas-reliefs adorn the statue of the Pope’s tomb. The statue of kneeling Sixtus was performed by sculptor Giovanni Paraca, known as Valsoldo.
Description
ივანე ჯავახიშვილის დაბადებიდან 146-ე წლისთავისადმი მიძღვნილი სამეცნიერო კონფერენცია
Keywords
სიქსტუს V, ეკლესია, კათოლიკური, რესტავრაცია, ენციკლიკა, მმართველობა, სისტემა, დიპლომატია, Sixtus V, Church, Catholic, Restoration, Encyclical, Governance, System, Diplomacy
Citation
ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის ჰუმანიტარულ მეცნიერებათა ფაკულტეტი, ჰუმანიტარულ მეცნიერებათა აქტუალური პრობლემები, თეზისები, თბილისი, 2022, გვ.: 131-139
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