ერთი ტოპონიმის ეტიმოლოგიისათვის

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2022-12
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ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა
Abstract
The Caucasus region has been attracting the attention of world scientists for a long time. Cultural and linguistic relations between peoples clearly leave traces on the ancient vocabulary, which has not been fully studied. Even today, it remains a question mark in science as to where the original habitat of the aboriginal peoples of the Mediterranean could have been. The ancient culture of the Mediterranean Sea reaches the Caucasus. In science, there is an opinion about the kinship relationship between the Georgian and previous Greek tribes. Borrowings from languages whose speakers must have come to the Caucasus from the south are recorded in the Georgian languages. Thus, the ratio of Mesopotamian – (pre-) Greek lexical encounters is also significant, which also points to the South-Eastern Anatolian origin of the ancient Aegean languages. According to the recognition of foreign scientists, many terms or names, which are related to the Georgian languages and directly to the Megrelian language, have entered the Greek language from the languages of the previous Greek tribes – the Pelasgians or others. Scientists do not dispute that Greek and Pelasgian are different languages. The presence of Pelasgian words in the Megrelianlanguage also indicates the ancient connections of the Colchian kingdom. The previous Greek geographical names are connected to the Kartvelian world, where these tribes lived or the Pelasgian population was spread. More than one ancient source informs us about Aegean migrations in the Caucasus in the Mycenaean era. There were such migrations before and after Troy. The ancient Aegean migration to Kolkheti is described by E.Corinfell. Connections of Pelasgian and Colchian population can be seen with many ancient Greek poets. Old sources also refer to Makrisians as Pelasgians. After this brief overview, let’s move on to the geographical name “Nakhuturu” found in the toponymy of Samegrelo, which is interesting to us. Time changes everything, and at the same time, researchers’ views on this or that issue also change. In the “Collection of Historical Geography of Georgia” published in 1964, Guram Grigolia’s article “For the explanation of one toponymic name of ancient Samegrelo” was printed. The author points out that the toponym “Nakhuturu” can be found in Anaklia, Ganmukhur, Kulevi and Poti, and everywhere it is a name of the area where the cemetery is located. The researcher believes that this toponym is derived from the Russian word “khutor”. To confirm this, he cites the relationship between Cossacks and Megrels in the 17th century in the correspondence of Russian ambassadors. The Cossacks who came to the south by the sea sometimes attacked the land and water of Samegrelo and raided its coastal villages. More often, the Cossacks marched independently or together with the Megrels to the Ottoman coast and robbed the population. This article, written in the deep Soviet period, suggests the existence of Cossack settlements in the Samegrelo bar, which the population later called “Nakhuturu” or Nakhutorali (by analogy with Nakalakari (a place where there was a city in ancient times), Nasofl ari (a place where there was a village in ancient times)). But here it is necessary to take into account the fact that similar toponyms are recorded not only in Samegrelo bar, near the mouths of big rivers, where the Cossacks may have had a temporary marina called Khutori, but also in the mountains of Samegrelo, where the Cossacks hadnot even set foot. Today, the place named “Nakhuturu” can be found in almost all districts of Samegrelo, and according to the definition of the population, it means “unconsecrated grave.” These places have not been studied archeologically. The term “Khudar” with the meaning of a grave is mentioned in Rismag Gordeziani’s book “Ancient Greek and Kartvelian.” In addition to this word, many other Kartvelian lexemes have been recorded in this book. In our opinion, the toponym “Nakhuturu” is derived from the pre-Greek or Pelasgian term “Khudar”. If we consider “Khudar” as the main base of the research name, the transition of sounds d t t’ into each other is a common story in phonetics, and na-.....-u is a prefix-suff ix producing toponyms in Megruli (Naokhwamu – Nasaqdrali (a place where there was a temple in ancient times), Najikhu – Natsikhari (a place where there was a fortress in ancient times) and many others).
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ტოპონიმია, სამეგრელო, წინა ბერძნული – პელაზგური, Toponymy, Samegrelo, Pre-Greek – Pelasgian
Citation
პროფესორ დავით გოცირიძის 70 წლისთავისადმი მიძღვნილი სამეცნიერო კონფერენცია, თეზისები, 2022, გვ.: 53-58/ Scientific Conference DEDICATED TO THE 70TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE BIRTH OF PROF. DAVIT GOTSIRIDZE, Abstracts, 2022, pp.: 53-58