საქართველოში ოსმალთა სანჯაყების ჩამოყალიბების პირველი მცდელობა და მისი შედეგები

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Date
2023
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ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა
Abstract
As reported by the Ottoman historian Ibrahim Peçevi, in 1536, the Ottomans conquered specific territories in Samtskhe and established Sanjaks there. The Ottoman entry into Samtskhe is documented in the Kunul-ahbar and Muradnameh. According to Turkish historian Ismail Danishmendi, the Ottomans created the Sanjaks of Oltis, Artvin, Kiskim, and Narman in the newly acquired Georgian regions. These mentioned Sanjaks are documented in the 1538 Tahrir Log of Arzrum, designating the Georgian territories under Erzurum’s authority. This timeframe coincides with the campaign led by King Bagrat III of Imereti into Samtskhe. In 1535, King Bagrat, accompanied by his allies, the Dadiani and Gurieli families, invaded Samtskhe. In the Battle of Murjakhedi, he defeated Atabag of Samtskhe, Kvarkvare III, capturing him. Kvarkvare III ultimately died in captivity. Otar Shalikashvili, a nobleman from Samtsakhe, sought refuge with the Ottoman Empire, along with Atabag's young son, Kaikhosro. Fahrettin Kirzioglu suggests an error in Vakhushti's account regarding the date of Bagrat III's conquest of Samtskhe, arguing that it occurred in 1436 instead of 1435, a claim not supported by Georgian sources. Sadik Bilge, based on the 1436 date, proposes that the newly appointed Sabeglarbego Beglarbeg of Erzurum and Bagrat III collaborated against the ruler of Samtskhe-Saatabago. However, this hypothesis lacks substantiation, as Bagrat had been fighting against the Ottomans for a decade and had sought support from not only Georgian kings and princes but also the Safavid Empire in Iran. In 1536, the newly appointed Beglarbeg of Erzurum entered Samtskhe. According to Mustafa Ali of Gallipoli, the Ottomans captured the Barakan fortress and the Fanak region. Muradnameh narrates that Erzurum Val Mehmed Pasha invaded Mamirvan and seized the Oltis and Fanak fortresses (Kırzıoğlu, p.163). As mentioned earlier, Ibrahim Peçevi provides an account of this invasion, noting that "after a fierce battle, the victory was claimed by the [Muslim] forces." A significant amount of booty was acquired, causing the surviving residents to disperse, while those from Sanjak-to-be-place populations declared their submission and requested the Sultan to appoint rulers and administrators. The last sentence in the report is somewhat unclear, indicating that the captured Georgian population petitioned the Sultan for the appointment of Sanjak rulers. The Turkish translation by Baikal and even origin itself states that "Pasha of Erzurum captured three or four Sanjak areas whose residents declared submission, and [Pasha of Erzurum] appealed to the Sultan to designate Sanjak rulers." Based on this information, some Georgian and Turkish scholars assert that this marked the initial establishment of Ottoman Sanjaks in Georgia, though this assertion is debatable. It is more accurate to describe it as an attempt to create Sanjaks. Farettin Kırzıoğlu suggests that the Ottomans conducted raids across the entire Speri- Artvin region (M.F. Kırzıoğlu, p. 162), even though the record explicitly states that the Ottomans raided the villages of Fertekrek and Tortum, not Artvin's side. According to the document, the conquered territories were placed under the rule of Kul Agha Mehmed Pasha, who imposed a tax of 40,000 akhcha. It is worth noting that, despite the effort to pay tribute and create sanjak, the Ottomans were not able to fortify Saatabago during this period. The Georgians quickly reclaimed the lost territories. According to Vakhushti Batonishvili, in 1541 (1543), the Ottomans once again entered the territory of Saatabago, this time led by Mustafa Pasha. The Georgians won this encounter, and Kaikhosro and Otar were compelled to go into hiding from the Ottomans. The Ottomans were not content with this reversal. In 1545, Suleiman I initiated a decisive battle to expel the king of Imereti from Saatabago. As reported by Vakhushti Batonishvili and the third text of the Life of Kartli, Suleiman sent Beglarbegs from Diyarbakir and Erzurum to subdue the Georgians. King Luarsab of Kartli and the ruler of Guria, Gurieli, joined forces with King Bagrat of Imereti. According to the third text of Kartli's Life, the Ottomans prevailed due to the "betrayal of the Meskhetians" (Kartli's Life, p. 499). Bagrat retreated to Kutaisi, while the Ottomans besieged Kaikhosro. In summary, although the Ottomans captured certain Samtskhe territories in 1536 and attempted to establish Sanjaks, King Bagrat of Imereti soon reclaimed these territories. Subsequently, the Ottomans made several unsuccessful attempts to recapture them, eventually handing over the title of Atabag to Kaikhosro.
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ეძღვნება აკადემიკოს ზაზა ალექსიძის ხსოვნას (1935 – 2023)/ Dedicated to Memory of Academician Zaza Aleksidze (1935 – 2023)
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აღმოსავლეთმცოდნეობა, №12, თბილისი, 2023, გვ.: 168-177 / Oriental Studies, №12, Tbilisi, 2023, pp.: 168-177
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