სოციალური ინჟინერია სოცრეალიზმის სამსახურში: მწერალი ადამიანის სულის ინჟინერია/ Social Engineering at the Service of Social Realism: A Writer is an Engineer of the Human Soul

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Date
2023-04-27
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ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა
Abstract
The Soviet government needed to have its literature and art compartmentalized to get help with strengthening its power and spreading the ideas of the Communist Party among the masses. However, there was no such phenomenon - such type of literature did not exist at that time, which meant that the Soviet government had to create one by itself. In order to have this form of literature justify the hopes of the communists and fulfill its goals, it should have been easily understood by the masses. To specify, it had to be realistic, but not realistic in the traditional sense (not similar to the one that was formed as a literary method in the 19th century and that existed in the form of a realistic flow in literature and art even before that, to precisely and boldly describe the reality of life and apply the reality as a means of expression, etc.) – it had to be something different. It was supposed to be the socialist realism - the only acceptable method for Soviet literature, which would be based on the socialist concept of the human and the world in general, and would actively engage in building communism, presenting and spreading the ideals of socialism, strengthening the Soviet regime, and educating Soviet people to develop loyalty to communist ideals, etc. Before the creation of the Soviet Union, humanity had not known such a phenomenon, such a creative method. In 1934, the first convention of Soviet writers recognized the socialist realism as the one and the only literary method and announced the party principles and socialist ideology as its main postulates. Thus, socialist realism completely subordinated literature to politics and ideology. This is how the theoretical postulates of socialist realism were formed. The next task was to put the new literary form into practice: writers had to transfer communist ideas into literature, and from literature they had to transferred to the reader in order to obtain the final product - the new, Soviet person. To this end, the Soviet regime, along with other means, resorted to human manipulation and social engineering - the latter contributed to developing the literature form of socialist realism as one of the most important tools of the party ideology. This is clearly demonstrated in the wellknown formula for the “communism-building society”: The writer is the engineer of the human soul. This slogan, authored by the writer I. K. Oleshaa (1899-1960), was embraced and repeated by Stalin himself, thus making the socialist realism an important tool of party ideology and propaganda. It was an epochal motto, which perfectly expressed the spirit of the corresponding party and was adopted by all relevant Soviet institutions. It is worth noting that literary critics were also referred to as engineers of the human soul, but in a narrower field of specialization. According to the Soviet mindset, the writer was an engineer-builder, engineer-constructor, and the critic was an engineer-consultant and a product evaluator (V. Kirshon). This new definition of literary critics implied that they as well were caught in the common trap of social engineering and assigned to contribute to the creation and sculpting of a new person.
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სოციალური ინჟინერია, სოციალური რეალიზმი, ადამიანის სული, Social Engineering, Social Realism, Human Soul
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ივანე ჯავახიშვილის დაბადებიდან 147-ე წლისთავისადმი მიძღვნილი სამეცნიერო კონფერენცია, თეზისები, თბილისი, 2023, გვ.: 25-29