ფენიმისტური ლიტერატურული კრიტიკა და ქალი ავტორების საკითხი თურქულ ლიტერატურაში

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Date
2021-03-31
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უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა
Abstract
In the literature, study of women’s issue is related to the feministic theories with the influence of which feminist criticism of literature was formed. Study of women, as authors and as reader is of great significance in feministic criticism. In modern Turkish literature number of women authors increases gradually. Their contribution in development of national literature is indeed very great. The issue of identification of women authors is of significance. Women authors brought new themes in literature and developed the new perception of the world. Based on all this, analysis of the issues elucidated by women authors in Turkish literature provides very interesting materials, in general, with respect of determination of women’s history and experience. Phenomenon of feminist criticism of literature is very significant for the feminist theory, as within this “problematic field” were stated such conceptual issues as: the issue of women’s subjectivity structure, which is different from men’s subjectivity; the issue of nature of women’s speech, language and thinking; the issue of female experience and sexuality; the issue of female representation strategy and female political strategy. Increased interest of the researchers to the works of women writers caused interest to the feminist criticism. Recognition of woman as a speaking subject allows her to break the socially-mythologized image and assess the external world pursuant to her own world view and perspective. Why the issue of identification of woman author, as the “speaking subject” is of such significance? First of all, this is the process of identification, which reveals complexity and ambivalent nature of the phenomenon of “speaking subject”. In the world, where the feminine values are rejected, women authors attempt to gain their own place. This is the step requiring courage and certain self-consciousness. Identification with the “women’s prose” as the feminine idea, can even cause estrangement with the mentioned idea in female authors. This is caused not only by the extra-literary factors but also by the fact that subconsciously, women are carriers of patriarchal language traditions. Characteristics of marginal topology of women authors are basically conditioned by the single fact. In the culture they were primarily perceived as women and only after this – as writers or poets. And reason of this was association of the literary discourse with the female body. It implies affective, emotional and sensitive nature. Women’s works were regarded not as the technological outcome of writing but as the result of natural creativity and psychological characteristics of women. Use of the names of their fathers or husbands or other pen names by women for anonymity could be regarded as typical manifestation of feminine marginal topology. The issue of identification of women authors is directly related to formation of the concept of “women’s literature”. Concept of “women’s literature” implies studying of the themes, genres, literary structures created by women. List of the subjects includes study of psychodynamics, linguistics and dynamics of feminine language, individual and collective trajectories of women’s carriers, history of literature and works of certain women writers. We shall consider the concept of “women’s literature” in details, as well as the issue of defining of the place of women writers in the literature of Tanzimat period, first and second halves of the republic period. On the example of experience of women poets and writers of the mentioned period, we shall reveal the difficulties, which they had to overcome and which are to be overcome by women authors even now, on their way for gaining of their identity. We shall discuss the opinions dealing with the concepts of “women’s literature” and “female writer”; we shall emphasize the factors playing significant role for the negative attitude towards the mentioned concepts. Theorist and critic of Turkish literature, J. Parla, in discussing of feminist criticism, pais particular attention to gender and presents the goal of feminist criticism as follows: “feminist criticism applied the method not applied by any literature theory before. Feminist criticism is based on the women’s movement commenced in the 18th century. Goal of feminist criticism is identification of the gender roles determined by the masculine ideology. It’s goal is cognition, analysing and changing of the social factors” (Irzik, Parla, 2004:180). Writer Afet Ilgaz discusses her dualist attitude towards this concept: “we attempt to get used to the word “woman”. Turkish society uses it in negative sense. We are ashamed of being women and some of our compatriots do not even recognize it. I was among them as well. Does anyone call Orhan Kemal a “man writer”? They why should I be called a “woman writer”? Though, now I understand that this is due to such attitude that we can not accept and acquire the concept of “woman writer” and thus we reject femininity and regard that being a woman means only the difference only with respect of sex” (Durakbaşa, 2012:16). In modern Turkish literature, the concept of “feminine literature” and “woman writer” cause different opinions among women authors. Famous women writers, Adalet Ağaoğlu, Sevinç Çokum, Buket Uzuner, Nazli Eray, Peride Celal are those writers, who express their protest against the concepts of “women’s prose” and “women’s literature”. Pinar Kur, Erdeniz Atasu, Inci Aral, Leyla Erbil, Nezihe Araz, Latife Tekin, Duygu Asena are concentrated on identification of women writers in patriarchal culture, gaining of their place and related issues. In our opinion, attitude of the writers who are against the concept of “women’s literature” is greatly influenced by the public attitude.
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ფემინისტური კრიტიკა, ქალი ავტორები, ქალთა პროზა, თურქული ლიტერატურა, Feminist criticism, women writers, women’s prose, Turkish Literature
Citation
პროფესორ ოთარ ბაქანიძისადმი მიძღვნილი საერთაშორისო სამეცნიერო კონფერენცია: ლიტერატურათმცოდნეობა: ისტორია, პერსპექტივები და გამოწვევები, თეზისები, 31 მარტი 2021, გვ. 10-17/ International Scientific Conference Dedicated to Prof. Otar Bakanidze: LITERARY STUDIES: HISTORY, PERSPECTIVES AND CHALLENGES, Abstracts, 31 March 2021, pp.: 10-17