დადეშქელიანთა სამთავრო რეზიდენცია ეცერში – ისტორია და კულტურულ-სოციალური ასპექტები

Loading...
Thumbnail Image
Date
2016
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Publisher
Abstract
Residence of the Dadeshkeliani family in the village Barshi of the Etseri community (the region of Mestia) is unique monument preserved in Svaneti – one of the historical-ethnographic regions of Georgia. The building is unique and outstanding with various signs: 1. Only few residences are preserved in Georgia. Barshi castle is a rare exception. 2. The building is of great historical value – it represents a long period in the history of Georgia – from the 15th century up to 1917. 3. The building is complex and it involves a tower, dwelling and farming constructions. It is encircled with the fence of the castle. Within the entire 19th century and till the 20s of the 20th century this residence has been a gathering place for travellers, alpinists, researcher-scientists and state officials during their visits to Svaneti, from where the guests were familiarized with the local Georgian culture. Correspondingly, in their notes and scientific research a great place is attributed to the description of this monument and elements of the Georgian traditional life. 4. Dadeshkeliani family (till the mid-19th c.) governed a vast section of Zemo (Upper) Svaneti from the village Jvari watch-tower to the Bali ridge. After Russia abolished Svaneti principality, princes from Dadeshkeliani family became state officials. Some of them performed important role in the national liberation movement of Georgia. Their names are associated with the opening of the first schools in Svaneti and with some other important national-cultural events. History: residence of the Dadeshkeliani family is located in the village Barshi of the Etseri community. It is situated at the end of the village, on the northwest side up on the hill. The residence included highly fenced vast area, which united the castle, dwelling and farming constructions. River Kedrula, which supplied the Etseri community with drinkable water, is located inside the fence. The first description of these combined buildings known to us is published in 1869 in “Droeba”. The author of this letter is the priest of Etseri community, Mikheil Mchedlidze. According to his notes, the conditions of Dadeshkeliani family were equal to the conditions proper for the ancient kings and landlords; the castle was surrounded by the fence and various constructions were attached to the walls inside the fence. The main gates were decorated with the iron wings and the keys were handed to the devoted servant of the feudal lord. There were lots of embrasure holes disposed in several rows on the western wall of the castle. There are some other later descriptions of the residence. Almost all of the state officials, priests, researchers and travellers visited Dadeshkeliani family during their trip to Svaneti and in most cases, they left their own descriptions of the area (bishop Gabrieli, Maksim Kovalevski, countess Praskovia Uvarova, Niko Marr, Akaki Shanidze). Correspondingly, we have the materials that describe the changes in the residence during some period of time. For example: it is known that during bishop Gabrieli’s first trip to Svaneti, the Dadeshkeliani family was building the summer residence, Imeretian wooden house outside the fence. Further materials show us that prince Tengiz built the second guest house as well. According to some other materials, it slowly became a tradition for the guests to cut out their autographs and some other inscriptions on the walls of the guest-house. These guest-houses do not exist anymore. The houses and part of the dwelling and farming constructions inside the fence were destroyed in 1917. After the October Revolution, during the chaos in Svaneti, the peasants, incited by the social-democrats, destroyed the buildings. The feudal foundation decorated with iron, strengthened with the tower with oak doors, and the logs of the houses of lime were cut into length and distributed to families; part of them were given to the teachers so that everyone were participants of this crime. The Main Essence of the Reconstruction Made by Anzor Kaldani: The territory inside the tall walls of the fence is about 1400 square metres. The walls of the fence were used as the walls of the dwelling and auxiliary buildings. The fence had two doors: the bigger one was used as gates and the smaller door – for farming purpose. This door connected the residence with the mill on the river Kedrula. The south-eastern part of the castle was mostly used for farming function (mill, threshing-floor, places for making vodka, stalls for firewood, etc.). The dwelling and farming constructions were situated inside the yard. The big, two-storeyed stone house is considered to be the oldest building. This house is destroyed nowadays. The first-floor area is about 164 square metres. This house was destroyed at the beginning of the XX century. The house space was distributed mainly among the servants. The walls of the house were decorated with the arched parapets. The second two-storeyed stone house was attached to the southern wall of this house. The first floor was used as a dwelling for cattle and the second floor was used for workmen as a place for living. There was the third two-storeyed stone house near the gates as well. The second function of this house was protecting the gates. The fourth stone house is situated near the south-west corner of the gates. The first floor of this house was used for cattle and the second floor was used for defensive and farming purposes. The five-storeyed tower located at the upper side of the residence, is the tallest tower in Svaneti. Its hight is about 30 metres. The size of it near the foundation is 6,60*6,55 metres. The receptacle of the first floor is 8,40 metres high from the ground. The body of the tower stays straight up to the third part of the whole building, then it narrows. The tower is crowned with arched parapet from which there was the apportunity to control quite a vast area. The two-storeyed constraction is attached to the northern wall of the tower. The first floor was used as the corridor to the receptacle of the two-storeyed house situated at the eastern part of the tower. There were huge bins of cereals in the basement. Part of the basement was used for storing wine. The receptacle on the second floor was connected to the other basement situated on the second floor of the house at the eastern part of the tower. That was where Dadeshkeliani family lived. There was a balcony connected to the tower as well. There were two small houses near the eastern wall of the castle: these houses were used for keeping cattle and their food. The territory was supplied with drinkable and farming water from the river Kedrula; the mill was built there as well. According to researchers, the tower and the whole residence, except the biggest house in the territory, must have been built in the second half of the 15th century or in the 16th century. Problems: residence of the Dadeshkeliani family is in extremely poor condition at present. The state officially protects the monument, its present condition demands urgent assistance. Some reconstructive works were made in the 1980s – the tower was bordered with iron hoop, it was roofed as well and the storeys were reconstructed. But nowadays the situation is regrettable: the fence is falling down and is being damaged, there are some deep cracks on the northern and eastern walls of the tower, the remaining parts of dwellings and facilities are being destructed. Some private buildings are cut into the territory of the monument, this fact violates its status. Perspectives: In case of conservation or partial restoration of this unique monument of the Georgian culture, this place can become an important museum – an open air historical-ethnographic centre. This monument and the regulated infrastructure around it have real potential for being established as cultural-educational centre of comprehensive character and will become the object of interest for youth, scientists and travellers interested in Georgian culture. All this, surely, is of considerable importance from the viewpoint of saving the cultural heritage and is also prospective for improving the local social environment and for assisting the local population stay in their living-places. Real Potentials: There are rich historical-ethnographic materials on the history of the monument and the representatives of the princely family of the Dadeshkeliani. There are also some scientific measurements and diagnostics of the monument, which require renewal. In the result of research for these materials and the full analysis, it is possible to compile informational project on the history of the monument and to present it to the interested public.
Description
https://geohistory.humanities.tsu.ge/ge/procedings/83-shromebi/168-shromebi-shota-meskhia-100.html
Keywords
დადეშქელიანები, ეცერი, ანზორ ქალდანი
Citation
ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის საქართველოს ისტორიის ინსტიტუტის შრომები, სპეციალური გამოშვება შოთა მესხია - 100, თბილისი, 2016, გვ. 422-443 / Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Institute of Georgian History Proceedings, Special Issue Shota Meskhia - 100, Tbilisi, 2016, pp. 422-443
Collections