იდეასთან მხატვრული მასალის მიმართების საკითხი ილია ჭავჭავაძის მოთხრობაში „სარჩობელაზედ“. THE ISSUE OF THE RELATION OF FICTIONAL MATERIAL WITH AN IDEA IN ILIA CHAVCHAVADZE’S STORY “ON THE GALLOWS”

Abstract
With his short story “On the Gallows” Ilia Chavchavadze brought the issues of the relationship of an individual with the society, crime, and punishment into the Georgian intellectual and literary space and made a stand against capital punishment. The primary driver of Ilia Chavchavadze’s creative work is the will to deliver the ideals to the readers with clarity and without obstructions. In a large segment of his prosaic work the idea is expressed through fictional material. The material is chosen to exhibit the idea with maximal precision and to leave a strong impression. This same method is used in the short story – “On the Gallows.” The compositional center of the story is the character of old Petre. He is a man formed and brought up by people, his nature, mentality, and his attitude towards his environment express people’s world views. His humanity, morality, and kindness are products of the environment that shaped him. With his charming childlike simplicity, naïveté, internal purity, and honesty, Petre comes close to the human ideal. His primary trait is his love towards other people which determines his unconditional kindness, warmth, and forgiveness. In the story all the important ideas and thoughts are expressed in relation to this character: Social degradation, indifference, and irresponsibility turned to cruelty are shown in the short story through old Petre’s confusion about people’s attitude towards the act of capital punishment. The protest against capital punishment and its cruelty, along with its incompatibility with the human ideal is shown through the fact, that even though Petre observes all of this with his own eyes, he cannot believe that they hung a living human “like a cat.” The letter written to Petre provides an analysis of the problem of crime and fair punishment. Life before the crime is retold in the letter from the point of view of a person who experienced the miserable situation of life taking away their choice and pushing them to crime firsthand. This enables the readers to not only judge the brothers, but to gain perspective and see the events through their eyes. This way the reader can balance the purely rational and cold judgement of the crime with a humanitarian position based in morality. Only such humanitarian attitude can produce fair judgement. Otherwise, punishment turns into revenge, and the moral barrier that separates the judge from the criminal disappears. Such approach is one of the primary requirements towards a healthier society.
Description
Keywords
იდეური ჩანაფიქრი, საზოგადოება, დანაშაული, სიკვდილით დასჯა, Idea, Society, Crime, Capital punishment
Citation
ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტი ჰუმანიტარულ მეცნიერებათა ფაკულტეტი, აკადემიკოს მარიამ ლორთქიფანიძის დაბადებიდან 100 წლის იუბილესადმი მიძღვნილი XVI საფაკულტეტო სამეცნიერო კონფერენცია, თეზისები, თბილისი, 2022, გვ.: 151-155 / Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Faculty of Humanities, 16th FACULTY SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE IN HONOUR OF THE 100th ANNIVERSARY OF THE BIRTH OF MARIAM LORTKIPANIDZE, Abstracts, Tbilisi, 2022, pp.: 151-155