ილია ჭავჭავაძის „მგზავრის წერილების“ პრობლემატიკა

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Date
2021-12-23
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ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა
Abstract
Ilia’s main message and question-dilemma reveals itself at the finale of the Letters of a Traveler. All the other parts and episodes of the plot, the creative-image system are organized gradually and are directed towards one target center, serve the cause of showing the mentioned. In return, the given main idea knot of the literary work defines and gives sense to all the episodes of the essay. Such interrelation solidifies the whole work and in the time-space flow, Letters of a Traveler transforms into the chronicles of “nation’s ulcer”, “luck and misfortune”, movement-immobility, the light and the darkness, search for and setting of future roads. “Povoska”, “Iamshchik”, “Podporuchik”, “Fransieli” and realities affiliated with them are the thinking image-ideas tied into one system; they are the images of Georgia’s present, real life, which, at the same time turn our sight towards the past; they show the painful reality more clearly, which, by the author’s intention, serve the task of moving the nation, awakening it. Conversation of Ilia the Traveler with himself, which represents several versions of possible meeting with the homeland, eventually shows itself as verbal connection between them, heartfelt acceptance-assimilation of each other. In the Traveler’s belief, verbal communication with the homeland is there, but the business relation still needs to be cleared. Answer to this question comes in next chapters, namely, showing-unveiling of the contrast image-symbols of the Glacier and Tergi serves for outlining the main idea – movement is what will give life to the country. Therefore, the true connection between the speech and deed is shown. If the comparison of the Glacier and Tergi shows the unity of the speech and deed, the symbolic pair of the day and night (through clearly drawing the boundary between the light and the darkness; with showing the superiority of the light), we believe, must show the human purpose in this life. Displaying the contrasting essence of the day and night prepares basis for revealing first the idea of a human and later of “the awakened human”. The creative-structural uniformity of the Letters of a Traveler is achieved through questions-and-answers, interrelation of creative images, shown in different chapters. Different events shown in previous narration appear in the later development of the plot; it is all clarified and described with logical sequence and evokes the sense of amazing organization. Based on all the aforementioned, we are able to see the action program outlined in the Traveler’s heart and mind, which is evaluated from the viewpoint of the past, present and future: speech, deed, “awakened human” taking the road of the good, pure with heart and deed. They are the creators of the freedom of the country. The interrelation between the III and VIVII chapters is clear in the Letters of a Traveler, namely, the thoughts-dilemma of the Traveler on his way to meeting the country and the meeting-dialogue of the Traveler and Lelt Gunia. The aforementioned chapters are similar not only by general discussion, but, primarily by revealingevaluating specific topics or events. In the III chapter the Traveler talks to himself, which, in return, reveals the attitude towards the country; in VIVII chapters, this relates to Lelt Gunia; it is seen and gains sense by the meeting with this character and communicating with him. Lelt Gunia is the symbol of the homeland, with “the small mountain horse” and Georgian national clothes, thoughts and discussions, heartfelt actions. The heartache and pain of the Mokheve (symbolically of the country) is the solution, guidance for all the doubts, problems that the Traveler is thinking about. Questions asked by Ilia the Traveler in the III chapter are answered by Lelt Gunia’s narration in the VIVII chapters. These chapters are based as on a middle axis on IVV chapters – the idea of the unity of the light, as of the greatest truth and goodness, “movement”deed (“deeds are in deeds”) and of the awakened human. The mentioned chapters create the unified system of perfectly formed thoughts, raised problems and set goal in the composition of the Letters of a Traveler and eventually the Traveler appears as Ilia’s and later of the Tergdaleulis’ action program. In the conversation between Ilia the Traveler and the beloved homeland with Mokhevian accent about fiction past, present and future perspective is the reflection of historic past, present and future. Such broad vision is based on each episode, happening and fiction image-idea of the literary work, which, on its behalf, unites the past and present, in order to make us to look towards the future. Time and space from Vladikavkaz to Tbilisi is full of national worldview and is considered as the road from past, through present, towards the future.
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ლიტერატურა, პერიოდიზაცია, ეპოქა, ქრონოლოგია, მსოფლმხედველობა, ჟანრი, Literature, Periodization, Epoch, Chronology, Worldview, Genre
Citation
სამეცნიერო კონფერენცია „XIX საუკუნე – ეპოქათა მიჯნა“, თეზისები, თბილისი, 2021, გვ. 17-21 / Scientific Conference XIX CENTURY – THE BOUNDARY OF EPOCHS, ABSTRACTS, Tbilisi, 2021 pp. 17-21