ისტორიას, კოლექციონერებს, მეცნიერებასა და პოლიტიკას შორის: შუა საუკუნეების ქართული სახარების ყდის იდენტიფიკაციისათვის საქართველოს ხალხური და გამოყენებითი ხელოვნების სახელმწიფო მუზეუმის ფოტოარქივიდან

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Date
2017
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Abstract
In the rich archives of the Georgian State Museum of Folk and Applied Art there is a collection of photographs acquired in 1910-1913. This is an important material for the identification and history of the precious objects taken out of Georgia during political volatility and now kept in various museums and private collections around the world. The present paper begins with one of the Museum's archival photographs of a cloisonné image of the Enthroned Virgin with Archangels in a richly-decorated chased frame. On the mount, the work is identified as the book cover of the Khakhuli Four Gospels. The same image of the Virgin paired with another enamel image of a standing figure of St. Demetrius in a similarly richly-decorated chased frame was identified by the Georgian scholars G. Chubinashvili and Sh. Amiranashvili as the Medieval period book cover of Gelati Four Gospels. As they showed, this book cover, one decorated with the gold-chased plaques and two cloisonné enamels, was kept until the 1880s at the Gelati monastery near Kutaisi until the enamels attracted collectors and antiquarians from the 19th century Russia, who, with the support of the local authorities, robbed the treasury of the monastery. The precious cover was removed from the manuscript and replaced by a modern Russian cover executed in the workshop of a famous Russian jeweler I. Sazikov. The original cover was sold to the Kamerger of the Russian Imperial court I. Balashev. Later on, the enamels were dismantled from the cover by I. Balashev who then lent them to different exhibitions organized between 1897- 1915 in St. Petersburg. After the Bolshevik Revolution, the enamels were illegally taken to Berlin where they appeared on the antiquarian market and were sold separately, St. Demetrius to the Berlin Museum and the Virgin to a Belgian collector, A. Stoclet. The two Georgian scholars also point out that the publications of the famous Russian scholar N. Kondakov is the only source of information about the enamels. Kondakov considered the enamel plaque of St. Demetrius as one of the best Byzantine enamels dated by the end of the 10th and beginning of the 11th century and the enamel of the Virgin as a work produced in Georgia by a Georgian artist at the end of the 12th and beginning of the 13th centuries. Based on a critical analysis of the Georgian and Russian publications on the enamels in a broader historical and political context as well as of the inscriptions on the page margins, the Museum’s photo can be identified as the book cover of the Vardzia Four Gospels, which once belonged to the Queen Tamar (1186-1212). It was probably donated to the Vardzia monastery and its main relic, the miraculous icon of the Virgin of Vardzia.
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https://geohistory.humanities.tsu.ge/ge/procedings/83-shromebi/169-shromebi-12.html
Keywords
სახარება, ხატი, მუზეუმი
Citation
ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის საქართველოს ისტორიის ინსტიტუტის შრომები, XII, თბილისი, 2017, გვ. 280-321 / Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Institute of Georgian History Proceedings, XII, Tbilisi, 2017, pp. 280-321
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