The "Sovereign Democracy" - a Dynamic Model of Russian Democracy

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Date
2019-06
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Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi state university, Faculty of social and political sciences
Abstract
In the process of modernization of the post-Soviet Russian political system, it became impossible to transplant a Western liberal democracy: an attempt of the ruling elite was followed by a chaotic functioning of the institutions within the political system. Against the will of the majority, the pro-western thinking minority, found themselves on the upper elite stance of the government, standing on the radical liberal ideological platform. In Russian reality, this was the main reason for increasing anti- globalist tendencies and therefore the need for anti-liberal political theories, which led to the rise of conservative and socialist political ideas, and in the consciousness of people, orienting on a personalized political figure who united the latter political doctrines. At all stages of the development of Russian history, Russian political opinion about a specific development of State and Civilization focused on the values of Christianity and democracy, different from Europe and the West ("Slavianophile"); Political rights and freedoms of people are connected to a strong State and a charismatic leader. In Russia, democratic governance, which was supported by pro-western citizens, could not have worked for two reasons: First, the history and modernity of Russia's State development is a continuous expansion process that required a strictly centralized State, a strong army, a rapid mobilization of the population, and the second - owning and managing enormous territories which required a single governance: Aristotle, Russo, Montesquieu discuss the difficulty of governing a large State and talk about the advantages of the medium-sized State. This general methodological approach between the territorial size of the state and the complexity of governance is confirmed in Russian reality. The Russian tradition of needing a strong government has been reinvented in Putin's governance and in the concept of values in the form of a doctrine of "sovereign democracy". "Sovereign Democracy" is a specific form of democracy based on Russian identity, within the framework of which it is possible to maintain the identity of the Russian nation, Sovereign State and culture and retain liberal democratization process in which individual freedom is restricted by collective interests. The modern Russian society is functioning within the symbiotic cultural basics of the traditional (archaic) and European (later modern) cultural elements. Traditional and modernist social-political theories, unlike the liberalism, recognize the superiority of the collective over the individual, both are focused on the idea of national interests and strong national security. In the not so distant perspective of Russia's political development, they will have an agenda, on the basis of evolutionary reform, shifting from the personalized model of stable functioning of the political system to the continuous maintenance of the stable functioning of the socio-political system, to the type which is called a functioning system based on the balance of social - political forces in society. To achieve this goal, it is advisable to move to a two-party system, because it is clear that the parties are grouped in two ideological sides. The first of those two, by value-ideological orientation, represents conservatives with a moderate centrist element, while the second group of parties stand on the left-wing ideological platform and are socialist parties with moderate centric orientation; this given party format generally expresses the will of the majority of Russian society. In the case of transition to the proportional electoral system, the fight of valuable aspects expressed by the political parties expressing the will of consolidated voters on both social poles causes the rationalization of political thinking and its pragmatic reach. This, in turn, ensures that the parties that stand on one ideological platform grow and their integration into the united party organism, which will result in the increase of potential voters. However, for this it is necessary to increase the minimum barrier of the parliamentary threshold to 7-8%. In such case, the liberal ideological forces are completely marginalized and will be swept away from the political scene, because they have no influence on the political process anyway. All of them provide the institutionalization of the system based on mutual balance and mutual control mechanism and the alternation of equal number of elites in the political system, which is an important step towards democratization.
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sovereign democracy, liberalism, transplantation, elite, proportional, სუვერენული დემოკრატია, ლიბერალიზმი, ტრანსპლანტაცია, ელიტები, პროპორციული
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