ებრაელთა განსახლების ისტორიისათვის სამხრეთ საქართველოში და მათი სოციალური მდგომარეობა

dc.contributor.authorნებიერიძე, ნონა
dc.date.accessioned2021-12-29T08:24:49Z
dc.date.available2021-12-29T08:24:49Z
dc.date.issued2021
dc.description.abstractDue to the scarcity of sources, it is hard to identify the ancient Jewish settlements in Southern Georgia. According to historical sources, travelers’ records, archive documents and Jewish epigraphic monuments, the Jews lived in Southern Georgia in the 17th century. The only exception is Tsunda, where, as a preserved toponym proves, the trace of Jews in Southern Georgia may be found in the antique epoch. The ancient town Tsunda was divided into districts. The name of one of the districts – Jiut-Mala, must mean “the district of the Jews”. This opinion has been expressed by a scholar Levan Chilashvili, who argues that Jiut is the same as Arabic Jiehud-Yehud, meaning a Jew, whereas „Mala“ („Mana“) means a district. Thus, a separate district of Jews must have existed in Tsunda under the name Jiut-Mala, which means the district of the Jews. The study of the types of Jewish settlements proves that in towns and villages the Jewish population was mixed with the local one. However, in large and developed cities, the Jews lived in separate districts and had their own synagogues, cemeteries and schools. Therefore, it is no wonder that in the ancient town Tsunda, which was one of the developed towns in Javakheti, there was a separate Jewish district. A geographer of the 18th century, Prince Vakhushti, provides the most detailed information regarding the Jewish settlements in Southern Georgia. According to this author, there were Jewish settlements in Abastumani, Atskuri, Akhaltsikhe, Adigeni and other places. The constant migration of Jews was conditioned by political, social and economic factors. At different times, the Jews residing in Southern Georgia moved to Atskuri and Akhaltsikhe. In the years 1821-1831, concessionary trade was introduced in South Caucasus. This turned Akhaltsikhe into an important trading place due to its strategic location. The government issued permissions of different duration to people who wanted to travel abroad for trade purposes. This proves that the Jews of Akhaltsikhe had intense trade relationships with Europe, Russia, Iran and the Ottoman Empire. In the 30s of the 19th century, the Jews had established “Solomon’s Trade Company”. Apart from trading in European and Asian goods, its members also imported the goods produced by Russian factories. The pressure of Moslem governors, the war between Russia and Turkey, constant raids and attacks, as well as high taxes, made the life of the Jewish community of Southern Georgia unbearable. They were forced to migrate to comparatively safe and, at the same time, economically advanced cities. In Southern Georgia, such a city was Akhaltsikhe. A large concentration of the Jewish population in this city was due to developed trade relationships and a flourishing economy. Alongside Georgian historical sources, interesting information regarding the history of Jews, their settlements, customs, traditions and social status is provided by European travelers and ethnographers. In this respect, special mention should be made of Judah Halevi Chorny, Jewish traveler and ethnographer of the 19th century. In his records, he tells about Jewish traditions, settlements, history, ancient objects and artefacts. J. Chorny studied the inscriptions on the wall of a synagogue and epitaphs on gravestones of Jewish cemeteries. According to him, the oldest gravestone was dated by the year 1739, and the inscription on the Western wall of the synagogue was made in 1740. Interestingly enough, a scholar N. Bablikashvili was unable to find the above-mentioned inscription on the synagogue wall. In 1970, he published a paper on the epigraphic monuments of Akhaltsikhe. The inscription proves that the synagogue was built in 1862. Hence, the question: if Chorny visited Akhaltsikhe in 1869, why does not hemention this inscription and the newly-built synagogue? There is another discrepancy with regard to the two inscriptions: at present, the inscription is made on the outer façade of the Southern wall of the synagogue, above the entrance. However, the inscription described by Chorny is located on a large stone of the Western wall, from the internal side. The traveler notes that residents of Akhaltsikhe do not remember the date of construction of the synagogue. Yet, it is strange that the residents of Akhaltsikhe do not remember the date of construction of a newly-built synagogue. In my opinion, the traveler makes mention of the old synagogue which has not survived till the present time. J. Chorny visited the communities of Akhaltsikhe and Atskuri. The Jewish residents of Atskuri were unable to host him due to severe living conditions. As Chorny notes, “all of them lived in huts and dark hovels“. Therefore, the honorable guest stayed at Mullah’s house and the hospitality costs were covered by the Moslem population. The old people of the village told the traveler many interesting stories about their past and present life. When visiting Akhaltsikhe, the ethnographer stayed at Rabbi Joseph Davitashvili’s house. Chorny gives a detailed description of the customs and rites of Akhaltsikhe community, their religious holidays, engagement and wedding traditions, as well as burial rituals. Thus, his records provide significant material regarding the lifestyle, settlement and social status of the Jewish community of the given period. Currently, there are no traces of Jews in Southern Georgia. The Jewish cultural heritage has not been preserved in the region. The only exceptions are Atskuri, with remaining Jewish cemetery and Hebrew inscriptions, and Akhaltsikhe, with two synagogues and a large cemetery in a Jewish district. The synagogue of Akhaltsikhe has preserved two Sefer Torahs (one of which must have been created 500 years ago) and many other ancient objects that form the treasury of Southern Georgia. As for the population, currently, Akhaltsikhe is the only town in Southern Georgia with a Jewish community.en_US
dc.identifier.citationაკადემიკოს კონსტანტინე წერეთლის დაბადებიდან მე-100 წლისთავისადმი მიძღვნილი საერთაშორისო კონფერენცია, თეზისები, 2021, გვ.: 201-208/ INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE DEDICATED TO THE CENTENARY OF THE BIRTH OF ACADEMICIAN KONSTANTINE TSERETELI, ABSTRACTS, p.: 201-208en_US
dc.identifier.urihttps://dspace.tsu.ge/handle/123456789/977
dc.language.isogeen_US
dc.publisherუნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობაen_US
dc.subjectებრაელებიen_US
dc.subjectგანსახლებაen_US
dc.subjectსოციალური მდგომარეობაen_US
dc.subjectსინაგოგაen_US
dc.subjectეპიგრაფიკული ძეგლიen_US
dc.subjectJewishen_US
dc.subjectSettlementsen_US
dc.subjectSocial Statusen_US
dc.subjectSynagogueen_US
dc.subjectEpigraphic Monumenten_US
dc.titleებრაელთა განსახლების ისტორიისათვის სამხრეთ საქართველოში და მათი სოციალური მდგომარეობაen_US
dc.title.alternativeTHE HISTORY OF JEWISH SETTLEMENTS AND THE SOCIAL STATUS OF JEWS IN SOUTHERN GEORGIAen_US
dc.typeThesisen_US
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