თეთრციხე (ციხესიმაგრე და კოშკი)

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Date
2018
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Abstract
Tetrtsikhe is located in Çıldır İlçe of Ardahan province (the Republic of Turkey). Akçakale is modern village in Çıldır İlçe to the northeast of Lake Çıldır (Chrdili in Georgian, means “shade”. Turkish “Çıldır” is derived from the Georgian word). This lake has an Island and on this Island several important cultural monuments are preserved. Our paper deals with two of them, those are – fortress and tower. The both of those structures as well as Island itself were called Tetrtsikhe in the past. Tetrtsikhe is a Georgian term that means white fortress. After the conquest of this region by the Ottoman Turks in the 16th century the sites were renamed in Turkish and were called – Akçakale (white fortress) in Turkish, which is direct translation of the authentic name of those monuments. The period of the Georgian sovereignty is discussed in this article. Numerous scholars devoted their research to the study of monuments of Akçakale Island. The most of them are listed in the paper. After Georgia gained independence from Soviet Union (1991) good relation was established between the Republic of Georgia and the Republic of Turkey. Since that time the Georgian researchers were able to visit and explore remains of the Georgian past in the northeastern Turkey. Akçakale in Ardahan province was one among such places. For the sake of historical accuracy we call this site “Tetrtsikhe” just as we are researching the Georgian period of its history. Tetrtsikhe was a part of Palakatsio, historical region of Medieval Georgia. Next to this region was Dzaghina gorge otherwise know in the Medieval Georgian Annals as Dzaghliskhevi. Dzaghina gorge (khevi) and Dzaghliskhevi denotes the same area located to the west of Lake Çıldır. The old historical Georgian regions once were independent tribes and they controlled the land that maintained their ethnic designation even after abolishment of their statehood. One such a tribe was called Igani in Urartian cuneiform writings. Igani was frequently mentioned in Urartian inscriptions. According to one of such an inscription that was discovered in the vicinity of Lake Çıldır (in Taşköprü village, located on southern shore of the lake) city of Makaltuni was captured by Urartian king Sarduri II (756-730 BC). In other inscriptions Sarduri also mentions seizure of 35 fortresses and 200 settlements of Igani. From the cuneiform writings of his father, Argishti I (785-756 BC) we know that Makaltuni was a city that belonged to Igani. Therefore, in accordance to the Taşköprü inscription scholars have concluded that Kingdom of Igani was located in the region of Lake Çıldır. The close analysis of the Georgian toponym “Dzaghini” (Dz-ighani>Igani) leads us to the opinion that it served as authentic name for the country and for the tribe who lived in Lake Çıldır region, which was adapted by the Urartians as Igani. Kingdom of Igani had its political center, but it is not mentioned in the Urartian inscriptions. We think that the royal city was Tetrtsikhe and its vicinity. The geographic location and the architectural specifics of Tetrtsikhe fortress, tower (both of them situated on the Island) and the old settlement, which is located in the north of village Akçakale (Tetrtsikhe), lead us to this opinion. All those structures were constructed during the Late Bronze Age or in Early Iron Age prior to Urartian invasions, which, mostly, took place in the 8th century BC. The most probably, Tetrtshe served as a royal seat of the kings of Igani. At least two Igani kings are attested in the Urartian cuneiform writings, those are: Kapurini and Diutsini. The Urartians were able to capture numerous fortresses of Igani, but we are not sure whether they have managed to storm Tetrtsikhe itself, which appears as the strongest fortification of Lake Çıldır region. More than 10 old megalithic fortifications were revealed in this region, which confirms statement of Urartian inscriptions about the number of Igani fortifications and we hope to find more in the future. The fate of Igani is uncertain after the decline of Urartian power in 7th century BC. Tetrtsikhe maintained its strategic position in the region and later was included in newly emerged Kingdom of Kartli. Armenians were able to seize this region and fortress for the short period of time. Later, the Georgians reestablished their control and after disintegration of Kartli various Georgian states were in control of Tetrthikhe. It was still one of the most important fortresses in Lake Çıldır region during the Middle Ages. The 10th century church was erected during the rule of Kartvelian kings on the Island. Generally, accounts about Tetrtsikhe are scant in the historical records. The term “Tetrtsikhe” itself appears only in the 16th century. The Georgian sources are describing the internal struggles in South Georgia and the Ottoman conquest of this fortress in 1578. Since the Ottomans established their control on this region the local Turkish sources, mainly, mentions village rather than fortress. The detailed description with pictures, plans and other materials about the fortress and the tower are also included in our article.
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https://geohistory.humanities.tsu.ge/ge/procedings/83-shromebi/170-shromebi-13.html
Keywords
ციხე-სიმაგრეები, კოშკი, ძაღინისხევი, აღჯაყალა, ჩილდირი
Citation
ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის საქართველოს ისტორიის ინსტიტუტის შრომები, XIII, თბილისი, 2018, გვ. 27-69 / Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University Institute of Georgian History Proceedings, XIII, Tbilisi, 2018, pp. 27-69
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